RFC 4718
This document is obsolete. Please refer to RFC 5996.

Network Working Group                                          P. Eronen
Request for Comments: 4718                                         Nokia
Category: Informational                                       P. Hoffman
                                                          VPN Consortium
                                                            October 2006

           IKEv2 Clarifications and Implementation Guidelines

Status of This Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).


   This document clarifies many areas of the IKEv2 specification.  It
   does not to introduce any changes to the protocol, but rather
   provides descriptions that are less prone to ambiguous
   interpretations.  The purpose of this document is to encourage the
   development of interoperable implementations.

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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................4
   2. Creating the IKE_SA .............................................4
      2.1. SPI Values in IKE_SA_INIT Exchange .........................4
      2.2. Message IDs for IKE_SA_INIT Messages .......................5
      2.3. Retransmissions of IKE_SA_INIT Requests ....................5
      2.4. Interaction of COOKIE and INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD ...............6
      2.5. Invalid Cookies ............................................8
   3. Authentication ..................................................9
      3.1. Data Included in AUTH Payload Calculation ..................9
      3.2. Hash Function for RSA Signatures ...........................9
      3.3. Encoding Method for RSA Signatures ........................10
      3.4. Identification Type for EAP ...............................11
      3.5. Identity for Policy Lookups When Using EAP ................11
      3.6. Certificate Encoding Types ................................12
      3.7. Shared Key Authentication and Fixed PRF Key Size ..........12
      3.8. EAP Authentication and Fixed PRF Key Size .................13
      3.9. Matching ID Payloads to Certificate Contents ..............13
      3.10. Message IDs for IKE_AUTH Messages ........................14
   4. Creating CHILD_SAs .............................................14
      4.1. Creating SAs with the CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange ............14
      4.2. Creating an IKE_SA without a CHILD_SA .....................16
      4.3. Diffie-Hellman for First CHILD_SA .........................16
      4.4. Extended Sequence Numbers (ESN) Transform .................17
      4.5. Negotiation of ESP_TFC_PADDING_NOT_SUPPORTED ..............17
      4.6. Negotiation of NON_FIRST_FRAGMENTS_ALSO ...................18
      4.7. Semantics of Complex Traffic Selector Payloads ............18
      4.8. ICMP Type/Code in Traffic Selector Payloads ...............19
      4.9. Mobility Header in Traffic Selector Payloads ..............20
      4.10. Narrowing the Traffic Selectors ..........................20
      4.11. SINGLE_PAIR_REQUIRED .....................................21
      4.12. Traffic Selectors Violating Own Policy ...................21
      4.13. Traffic Selector Authorization ...........................22
   5. Rekeying and Deleting SAs ......................................23
      5.1. Rekeying SAs with the CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange ............23
      5.2. Rekeying the IKE_SA vs. Reauthentication ..................24
      5.3. SPIs When Rekeying the IKE_SA .............................25
      5.4. SPI When Rekeying a CHILD_SA ..............................25
      5.5. Changing PRFs When Rekeying the IKE_SA ....................26
      5.6. Deleting vs. Closing SAs ..................................26
      5.7. Deleting a CHILD_SA Pair ..................................26
      5.8. Deleting an IKE_SA ........................................27
      5.9. Who is the original initiator of IKE_SA ...................27
      5.10. Comparing Nonces .........................................27
      5.11. Exchange Collisions ......................................28
      5.12. Diffie-Hellman and Rekeying the IKE_SA ...................36

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   6. Configuration Payloads .........................................37
      6.1. Assigning IP Addresses ....................................37
      6.2. Requesting any INTERNAL_IP4/IP6_ADDRESS ...................38
      6.3. INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET/INTERNAL_IP6_SUBNET ...................38
      6.4. INTERNAL_IP4_NETMASK ......................................41
      6.5. Configuration Payloads for IPv6 ...........................42
      6.6. INTERNAL_IP6_NBNS .........................................43
      6.7. INTERNAL_ADDRESS_EXPIRY ...................................43
      6.8. Address Assignment Failures ...............................44
   7. Miscellaneous Issues ...........................................45
      7.1. Matching ID_IPV4_ADDR and ID_IPV6_ADDR ....................45
      7.2. Relationship of IKEv2 to RFC 4301 .........................45
      7.3. Reducing the Window Size ..................................46
      7.4. Minimum Size of Nonces ....................................46
      7.5. Initial Zero Octets on Port 4500 ..........................46
      7.6. Destination Port for NAT Traversal ........................47
      7.7. SPI Values for Messages outside an IKE_SA .................47
      7.8. Protocol ID/SPI Fields in Notify Payloads .................48
      7.9. Which message should contain INITIAL_CONTACT ..............48
      7.10. Alignment of Payloads ....................................48
      7.11. Key Length Transform Attribute ...........................48
      7.12. IPsec IANA Considerations ................................49
      7.13. Combining ESP and AH .....................................50
   8. Implementation Mistakes ........................................50
   9. Security Considerations ........................................51
   10. Acknowledgments ...............................................51
   11. References ....................................................51
      11.1. Normative References .....................................51
      11.2. Informative References ...................................52
   Appendix A. Exchanges and Payloads ................................54
      A.1. IKE_SA_INIT Exchange ......................................54
      A.2. IKE_AUTH Exchange without EAP .............................54
      A.3. IKE_AUTH Exchange with EAP ................................55
      A.4. CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange for Creating/Rekeying
           CHILD_SAs .................................................56
      A.5. CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange for Rekeying the IKE_SA ..........56
      A.6. INFORMATIONAL Exchange ....................................56

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1.  Introduction

   This document clarifies many areas of the IKEv2 specification that
   may be difficult to understand to developers not intimately familiar
   with the specification and its history.  The clarifications in this
   document come from the discussion on the IPsec WG mailing list, from
   experience in interoperability testing, and from implementation
   issues that have been brought to the editors' attention.

   IKEv2/IPsec can be used for several different purposes, including
   IPsec-based remote access (sometimes called the "road warrior" case),
   site-to-site virtual private networks (VPNs), and host-to-host
   protection of application traffic.  While this document attempts to
   consider all of these uses, the remote access scenario has perhaps
   received more attention here than the other uses.

   This document does not place any requirements on anyone and does not
   use [RFC2119] keywords such as "MUST" and "SHOULD", except in
   quotations from the original IKEv2 documents.  The requirements are
   given in the IKEv2 specification [IKEv2] and IKEv2 cryptographic
   algorithms document [IKEv2ALG].

   In this document, references to a numbered section (such as "Section
   2.15") mean that section in [IKEv2].  References to mailing list
   messages or threads refer to the IPsec WG mailing list at
   ipsec@ietf.org.  Archives of the mailing list can be found at

2.  Creating the IKE_SA

2.1.  SPI Values in IKE_SA_INIT Exchange

   Normal IKE messages include the initiator's and responder's Security
   Parameter Indexes (SPIs), both of which are non-zero, in the IKE
   header.  However, there are some corner cases where the IKEv2
   specification is not fully consistent about what values should be

   First, Section 3.1 says that the Responder's SPI "...MUST NOT be zero
   in any other message" (than the first message of the IKE_SA_INIT
   exchange).  However, the figure in Section 2.6 shows the second
   IKE_SA_INIT message as "HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE)", contradicting the text
   in 3.1.

   Since the responder's SPI identifies security-related state held by
   the responder, and in this case no state is created, sending a zero
   value seems reasonable.

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   Second, in addition to cookies, there are several other cases when
   the IKE_SA_INIT exchange does not result in the creation of an IKE_SA
   (for instance, INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD or NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN).  What
   responder SPI value should be used in the IKE_SA_INIT response in
   this case?

   Since the IKE_SA_INIT request always has a zero responder SPI, the
   value will not be actually used by the initiator.  Thus, we think
   sending a zero value is correct also in this case.

   If the responder sends a non-zero responder SPI, the initiator should
   not reject the response only for that reason.  However, when retrying
   the IKE_SA_INIT request, the initiator will use a zero responder SPI,
   as described in Section 3.1: "Responder's SPI [...]  This value MUST
   be zero in the first message of an IKE Initial Exchange (including
   repeats of that message including a cookie) [...]".  We believe the
   intent was to cover repeats of that message due to other reasons,
   such as INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD, as well.

   (References: "INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD and clarifications document" thread,
   Sep-Oct 2005.)

2.2.  Message IDs for IKE_SA_INIT Messages

   The Message ID for IKE_SA_INIT messages is always zero.  This
   includes retries of the message due to responses such as COOKIE and

   This is because Message IDs are part of the IKE_SA state, and when
   the responder replies to IKE_SA_INIT request with N(COOKIE) or
   N(INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD), the responder does not allocate any state.

   (References: "Question about N(COOKIE) and N(INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD)
   combination" thread, Oct 2004.  Tero Kivinen's mail "Comments of
   draft-eronen-ipsec-ikev2-clarifications-02.txt", 2005-04-05.)

2.3.  Retransmissions of IKE_SA_INIT Requests

   When a responder receives an IKE_SA_INIT request, it has to determine
   whether the packet is a retransmission belonging to an existing
   "half-open" IKE_SA (in which case the responder retransmits the same
   response), or a new request (in which case the responder creates a
   new IKE_SA and sends a fresh response).

   The specification does not describe in detail how this determination
   is done.  In particular, it is not sufficient to use the initiator's
   SPI and/or IP address for this purpose: two different peers behind a
   single NAT could choose the same initiator SPI (and the probability

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   of this happening is not necessarily small, since IKEv2 does not
   require SPIs to be chosen randomly).  Instead, the responder should
   do the IKE_SA lookup using the whole packet or its hash (or at the
   minimum, the Ni payload which is always chosen randomly).

   For all other packets than IKE_SA_INIT requests, looking up right
   IKE_SA is of course done based on the recipient's SPI (either the
   initiator or responder SPI depending on the value of the Initiator
   bit in the IKE header).

2.4.  Interaction of COOKIE and INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD

   There are two common reasons why the initiator may have to retry the
   IKE_SA_INIT exchange: the responder requests a cookie or wants a
   different Diffie-Hellman group than was included in the KEi payload.
   Both of these cases are quite simple alone, but it is not totally
   obvious what happens when they occur at the same time, that is, the
   IKE_SA_INIT exchange is retried several times.

   The main question seems to be the following: if the initiator
   receives a cookie from the responder, should it include the cookie in
   only the next retry of the IKE_SA_INIT request, or in all subsequent
   retries as well?  Section 3.10.1 says that:

      "This notification MUST be included in an IKE_SA_INIT request
      retry if a COOKIE notification was included in the initial

   This could be interpreted as saying that when a cookie is received in
   the initial response, it is included in all retries.  On the other
   hand, Section 2.6 says that:

      "Initiators who receive such responses MUST retry the
      IKE_SA_INIT with a Notify payload of type COOKIE containing
      the responder supplied cookie data as the first payload and
      all other payloads unchanged."

   Including the same cookie in later retries makes sense only if the
   "all other payloads unchanged" restriction applies only to the first
   retry, but not to subsequent retries.

   It seems that both interpretations can peacefully coexist.  If the
   initiator includes the cookie only in the next retry, one additional
   roundtrip may be needed in some cases:

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      Initiator                   Responder
     -----------                 -----------
      HDR(A,0), SAi1, KEi, Ni -->
                              <-- HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE)
      HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE), SAi1, KEi, Ni  -->
                              <-- HDR(A,0), N(INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD)
      HDR(A,0), SAi1, KEi', Ni -->
                              <-- HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE')
      HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE'), SAi1, KEi',Ni -->
                              <-- HDR(A,B), SAr1, KEr, Nr

   An additional roundtrip is needed also if the initiator includes the
   cookie in all retries, but the responder does not support this
   functionality.  For instance, if the responder includes the SAi1 and
   KEi payloads in cookie calculation, it will reject the request by
   sending a new cookie (see also Section 2.5 of this document for more
   text about invalid cookies):

      Initiator                   Responder
     -----------                 -----------
      HDR(A,0), SAi1, KEi, Ni -->
                              <-- HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE)
      HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE), SAi1, KEi, Ni  -->
                              <-- HDR(A,0), N(INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD)
      HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE), SAi1, KEi', Ni -->
                              <-- HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE')
      HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE'), SAi1, KEi',Ni -->
                              <-- HDR(A,B), SAr1, KEr, Nr

   If both peers support including the cookie in all retries, a slightly
   shorter exchange can happen:

      Initiator                   Responder
     -----------                 -----------
      HDR(A,0), SAi1, KEi, Ni -->
                              <-- HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE)
      HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE), SAi1, KEi, Ni  -->
                              <-- HDR(A,0), N(INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD)
      HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE), SAi1, KEi', Ni -->
                              <-- HDR(A,B), SAr1, KEr, Nr

   This document recommends that implementations should support this
   shorter exchange, but it must not be assumed the other peer also
   supports the shorter exchange.

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   In theory, even this exchange has one unnecessary roundtrip, as both
   the cookie and Diffie-Hellman group could be checked at the same

      Initiator                   Responder
     -----------                 -----------
      HDR(A,0), SAi1, KEi, Ni -->
                              <-- HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE),
      HDR(A,0), N(COOKIE), SAi1, KEi',Ni -->
                              <-- HDR(A,B), SAr1, KEr, Nr

   However, it is clear that this case is not allowed by the text in
   Section 2.6, since "all other payloads" clearly includes the KEi
   payload as well.

   (References: "INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD and clarifications document" thread,
   Sep-Oct 2005.)

2.5.  Invalid Cookies

   There has been some confusion what should be done when an IKE_SA_INIT
   request containing an invalid cookie is received ("invalid" in the
   sense that its contents do not match the value expected by the

   The correct action is to ignore the cookie and process the message as
   if no cookie had been included (usually this means sending a response
   containing a new cookie).  This is shown in Section 2.6 when it says
   "The responder in that case MAY reject the message by sending another
   response with a new cookie [...]".

   Other possible actions, such as ignoring the whole request (or even
   all requests from this IP address for some time), create strange
   failure modes even in the absence of any malicious attackers and do
   not provide any additional protection against DoS attacks.

   (References: "Invalid Cookie" thread, Sep-Oct 2005.)

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3.  Authentication

3.1.  Data Included in AUTH Payload Calculation

   Section 2.15 describes how the AUTH payloads are calculated; this
   calculation involves values prf(SK_pi,IDi') and prf(SK_pr,IDr').  The
   text describes the method in words, but does not give clear
   definitions of what is signed or MACed (i.e., protected with a
   message authentication code).

   The initiator's signed octets can be described as:

       InitiatorSignedOctets = RealMessage1 | NonceRData | MACedIDForI
       GenIKEHDR = [ four octets 0 if using port 4500 ] | RealIKEHDR
       RealIKEHDR =  SPIi | SPIr |  . . . | Length
       RealMessage1 = RealIKEHDR | RestOfMessage1
       NonceRPayload = PayloadHeader | NonceRData
       InitiatorIDPayload = PayloadHeader | RestOfIDPayload
       RestOfInitIDPayload = IDType | RESERVED | InitIDData
       MACedIDForI = prf(SK_pi, RestOfInitIDPayload)

   The responder's signed octets can be described as:

       ResponderSignedOctets = RealMessage2 | NonceIData | MACedIDForR
       GenIKEHDR = [ four octets 0 if using port 4500 ] | RealIKEHDR
       RealIKEHDR =  SPIi | SPIr |  . . . | Length
       RealMessage2 = RealIKEHDR | RestOfMessage2
       NonceIPayload = PayloadHeader | NonceIData
       ResponderIDPayload = PayloadHeader | RestOfIDPayload
       RestOfRespIDPayload = IDType | RESERVED | InitIDData
       MACedIDForR = prf(SK_pr, RestOfRespIDPayload)

3.2.  Hash Function for RSA Signatures

   Section 3.8 says that RSA digital signature is "Computed as specified
   in section 2.15 using an RSA private key over a PKCS#1 padded hash."

   Unlike IKEv1, IKEv2 does not negotiate a hash function for the
   IKE_SA.  The algorithm for signatures is selected by the signing
   party who, in general, may not know beforehand what algorithms the
   verifying party supports.  Furthermore, [IKEv2ALG] does not say what
   algorithms implementations are required or recommended to support.
   This clearly has a potential for causing interoperability problems,
   since authentication will fail if the signing party selects an
   algorithm that is not supported by the verifying party, or not
   acceptable according to the verifying party's policy.

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   This document recommends that all implementations support SHA-1 and
   use SHA-1 as the default hash function when generating the
   signatures, unless there are good reasons (such as explicit manual
   configuration) to believe that the peer supports something else.

   Note that hash function collision attacks are not important for the
   AUTH payloads, since they are not intended for third-party
   verification, and the data includes fresh nonces.  See [HashUse] for
   more discussion about hash function attacks and IPsec.

   Another reasonable choice would be to use the hash function that was
   used by the CA when signing the peer certificate.  However, this does
   not guarantee that the IKEv2 peer would be able to validate the AUTH
   payload, because the same code might not be used to validate
   certificate signatures and IKEv2 message signatures, and these two
   routines may support a different set of hash algorithms.  The peer
   could be configured with a fingerprint of the certificate, or
   certificate validation could be performed by an external entity using
   [SCVP].  Furthermore, not all CERT payloads types include a
   signature, and the certificate could be signed with some algorithm
   other than RSA.

   Note that unlike IKEv1, IKEv2 uses the PKCS#1 v1.5 [PKCS1v20]
   signature encoding method (see next section for details), which
   includes the algorithm identifier for the hash algorithm.  Thus, when
   the verifying party receives the AUTH payload it can at least
   determine which hash function was used.

   (References: Magnus Alstrom's mail "RE:", 2005-01-03.  Pasi Eronen's
   reply, 2005-01-04.  Tero Kivinen's reply, 2005-01-04.  "First draft
   of IKEv2.1" thread, Dec 2005/Jan 2006.)

3.3.  Encoding Method for RSA Signatures

   Section 3.8 says that the RSA digital signature is "Computed as
   specified in section 2.15 using an RSA private key over a PKCS#1
   padded hash."

   The PKCS#1 specification [PKCS1v21] defines two different encoding
   methods (ways of "padding the hash") for signatures.  However, the
   Internet-Draft approved by the IESG had a reference to the older
   PKCS#1 v2.0 [PKCS1v20].  That version has only one encoding method
   for signatures (EMSA-PKCS1-v1_5), and thus there is no ambiguity.

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   Note that this encoding method is different from the encoding method
   used in IKEv1.  If future revisions of IKEv2 provide support for
   other encoding methods (such as EMSA-PSS), they will be given new
   Auth Method numbers.

   (References: Pasi Eronen's mail "RE:", 2005-01-04.)

3.4.  Identification Type for EAP

   Section 3.5 defines several different types for identification
   payloads, including, e.g., ID_FQDN, ID_RFC822_ADDR, and ID_KEY_ID.
   EAP [EAP] does not mandate the use of any particular type of
   identifier, but often EAP is used with Network Access Identifiers
   (NAIs) defined in [NAI].  Although NAIs look a bit like email
   addresses (e.g., "joe@example.com"), the syntax is not exactly the
   same as the syntax of email address in [RFC822].  This raises the
   question of which identification type should be used.

   This document recommends that ID_RFC822_ADDR identification type is
   used for those NAIs that include the realm component.  Therefore,
   responder implementations should not attempt to verify that the
   contents actually conform to the exact syntax given in [RFC822] or
   [RFC2822], but instead should accept any reasonable looking NAI.

   For NAIs that do not include the realm component, this document
   recommends using the ID_KEY_ID identification type.

   (References: "need your help on this IKEv2/i18n/EAP issue" and "IKEv2
   identifier issue with EAP" threads, Aug 2004.)

3.5.  Identity for Policy Lookups When Using EAP

   When the initiator authentication uses EAP, it is possible that the
   contents of the IDi payload is used only for AAA routing purposes and
   selecting which EAP method to use.  This value may be different from
   the identity authenticated by the EAP method (see [EAP], Sections 5.1
   and 7.3).

   It is important that policy lookups and access control decisions use
   the actual authenticated identity.  Often the EAP server is
   implemented in a separate AAA server that communicates with the IKEv2
   responder using, e.g., RADIUS [RADEAP].  In this case, the
   authenticated identity has to be sent from the AAA server to the
   IKEv2 responder.

   (References: Pasi Eronen's mail "RE: Reauthentication in IKEv2",
   2004-10-28.  "Policy lookups" thread, Oct/Nov 2004.  RFC 3748,
   Section 7.3.)

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3.6.  Certificate Encoding Types

   Section 3.6 defines a total of twelve different certificate encoding
   types, and continues that "Specific syntax is for some of the
   certificate type codes above is not defined in this document."
   However, the text does not provide references to other documents that
   would contain information about the exact contents and use of those

   Without this information, it is not possible to develop interoperable
   implementations.  Therefore, this document recommends that the
   following certificate encoding values should not be used before new
   specifications that specify their use are available.

        PKCS #7 wrapped X.509 certificate    1
        PGP Certificate                      2
        DNS Signed Key                       3
        Kerberos Token                       6
        SPKI Certificate                     9

   This document recommends that most implementations should use only
   those values that are "MUST"/"SHOULD" requirements in [IKEv2]; i.e.,
   "X.509 Certificate - Signature" (4), "Raw RSA Key" (11), "Hash and
   URL of X.509 certificate" (12), and "Hash and URL of X.509 bundle"

   Furthermore, Section 3.7 says that the "Certificate Encoding" field
   for the Certificate Request payload uses the same values as for
   Certificate payload.  However, the contents of the "Certification
   Authority" field are defined only for X.509 certificates (presumably
   covering at least types 4, 10, 12, and 13).  This document recommends
   that other values should not be used before new specifications that
   specify their use are available.

   The "Raw RSA Key" type needs one additional clarification.  Section
   3.6 says it contains "a PKCS #1 encoded RSA key".  What this means is
   a DER-encoded RSAPublicKey structure from PKCS#1 [PKCS1v21].

3.7.  Shared Key Authentication and Fixed PRF Key Size

   Section 2.15 says that "If the negotiated prf takes a fixed-size key,
   the shared secret MUST be of that fixed size".  This statement is
   correct: the shared secret must be of the correct size.  If it is
   not, it cannot be used; there is no padding, truncation, or other
   processing involved to force it to that correct size.

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   This requirement means that it is difficult to use these pseudo-
   random functions (PRFs) with shared key authentication.  The authors
   think this part of the specification was very poorly thought out, and
   using PRFs with a fixed key size is likely to result in
   interoperability problems.  Thus, we recommend that such PRFs should
   not be used with shared key authentication.  PRF_AES128_XCBC
   [RFC3664] originally used fixed key sizes; that RFC has been updated
   to handle variable key sizes in [RFC4434].

   Note that Section 2.13 also contains text that is related to PRFs
   with fixed key size: "When the key for the prf function has fixed
   length, the data provided as a key is truncated or padded with zeros
   as necessary unless exceptional processing is explained following the
   formula".  However, this text applies only to the prf+ construction,
   so it does not contradict the text in Section 2.15.

   (References: Paul Hoffman's mail "Re: ikev2-07: last nits",
   2003-05-02.  Hugo Krawczyk's reply, 2003-05-12.  Thread "Question
   about PRFs with fixed size key", Jan 2005.)

3.8.  EAP Authentication and Fixed PRF Key Size

   As described in the previous section, PRFs with a fixed key size
   require a shared secret of exactly that size.  This restriction
   applies also to EAP authentication.  For instance, a PRF that
   requires a 128-bit key cannot be used with EAP since [EAP] specifies
   that the MSK is at least 512 bits long.

   (References: Thread "Question about PRFs with fixed size key", Jan

3.9.  Matching ID Payloads to Certificate Contents

   In IKEv1, there was some confusion about whether or not the
   identities in certificates used to authenticate IKE were required to
   match the contents of the ID payloads.  The PKI4IPsec Working Group
   produced the document [PKI4IPsec] which covers this topic in much
   more detail.  However, Section 3.5 of [IKEv2] explicitly says that
   the ID payload "does not necessarily have to match anything in the
   CERT payload".

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3.10.  Message IDs for IKE_AUTH Messages

   According to Section 2.2, "The IKE_SA initial setup messages will
   always be numbered 0 and 1."  That is true when the IKE_AUTH exchange
   does not use EAP.  When EAP is used, each pair of messages has their
   message numbers incremented.  The first pair of AUTH messages will
   have an ID of 1, the second will be 2, and so on.

   (References: "Question about MsgID in AUTH exchange" thread, April

4.  Creating CHILD_SAs

4.1.  Creating SAs with the CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange

   Section 1.3's organization does not lead to clear understanding of
   what is needed in which environment.  The section can be reorganized
   with subsections for each use of the CREATE_CHILD_SA exchange
   (creating child SAs, rekeying IKE SAs, and rekeying child SAs.)

   The new Section 1.3 with subsections and the above changes might look
   like the following.

   NEW-1.3 The CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange

        The CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange is used to create new CHILD_SAs and
        to rekey both IKE_SAs and CHILD_SAs.  This exchange consists of
        a single request/response pair, and some of its function was
        referred to as a phase 2 exchange in IKEv1.  It MAY be initiated
        by either end of the IKE_SA after the initial exchanges are

        All messages following the initial exchange are
        cryptographically protected using the cryptographic algorithms
        and keys negotiated in the first two messages of the IKE
        exchange.  These subsequent messages use the syntax of the
        Encrypted Payload described in section 3.14.  All subsequent
        messages include an Encrypted Payload, even if they are referred
        to in the text as "empty".

        The CREATE_CHILD_SA is used for rekeying IKE_SAs and CHILD_SAs.
        This section describes the first part of rekeying, the creation
        of new SAs; Section 2.8 covers the mechanics of rekeying,
        including moving traffic from old to new SAs and the deletion of
        the old SAs.  The two sections must be read together to
        understand the entire process of rekeying.

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        Either endpoint may initiate a CREATE_CHILD_SA exchange, so in
        this section the term initiator refers to the endpoint
        initiating this exchange.  An implementation MAY refuse all
        CREATE_CHILD_SA requests within an IKE_SA.

        The CREATE_CHILD_SA request MAY optionally contain a KE payload
        for an additional Diffie-Hellman exchange to enable stronger
        guarantees of forward secrecy for the CHILD_SA or IKE_SA.  The
        keying material for the SA is a function of SK_d established
        during the establishment of the IKE_SA, the nonces exchanged
        during the CREATE_CHILD_SA exchange, and the Diffie-Hellman
        value (if KE payloads are included in the CREATE_CHILD_SA
        exchange).  The details are described in sections 2.17 and 2.18.

        If a CREATE_CHILD_SA exchange includes a KEi payload, at least
        one of the SA offers MUST include the Diffie-Hellman group of
        the KEi.  The Diffie-Hellman group of the KEi MUST be an element
        of the group the initiator expects the responder to accept
        (additional Diffie-Hellman groups can be proposed).  If the
        responder rejects the Diffie-Hellman group of the KEi payload,
        the responder MUST reject the request and indicate its preferred
        Diffie-Hellman group in the INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD Notification
        payload.  In the case of such a rejection, the CREATE_CHILD_SA
        exchange fails, and the initiator SHOULD retry the exchange with
        a Diffie-Hellman proposal and KEi in the group that the
        responder gave in the INVALID_KE_PAYLOAD.

   NEW-1.3.1 Creating New CHILD_SAs with the CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange

        A CHILD_SA may be created by sending a CREATE_CHILD_SA request.
        The CREATE_CHILD_SA request for creating a new CHILD_SA is:

            Initiator                                 Responder
           -----------                               -----------
            HDR, SK {[N+], SA, Ni, [KEi],
                       TSi, TSr}        -->

        The initiator sends SA offer(s) in the SA payload, a nonce in
        the Ni payload, optionally a Diffie-Hellman value in the KEi
        payload, and the proposed traffic selectors for the proposed
        CHILD_SA in the TSi and TSr payloads.  The request can also
        contain Notify payloads that specify additional details for the

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        The CREATE_CHILD_SA response for creating a new CHILD_SA is:

                                       <--    HDR, SK {[N+], SA, Nr,
                                                    [KEr], TSi, TSr}

        The responder replies with the accepted offer in an SA payload,
        and a Diffie-Hellman value in the KEr payload if KEi was
        included in the request and the selected cryptographic suite
        includes that group.  As with the request, optional Notification
        payloads can specify additional details for the CHILD_SA.

        The traffic selectors for traffic to be sent on that SA are
        specified in the TS payloads in the response, which may be a
        subset of what the initiator of the CHILD_SA proposed.

   The text about rekeying SAs can be found in Section 5.1 of this

4.2.  Creating an IKE_SA without a CHILD_SA

   CHILD_SAs can be created either by being piggybacked on the IKE_AUTH
   exchange, or using a separate CREATE_CHILD_SA exchange.  The
   specification is not clear about what happens if creating the
   CHILD_SA during the IKE_AUTH exchange fails for some reason.

   Our recommendation in this situation is that the IKE_SA is created as
   usual.  This is also in line with how the CREATE_CHILD_SA exchange
   works: a failure to create a CHILD_SA does not close the IKE_SA.

   The list of responses in the IKE_AUTH exchange that do not prevent an
   IKE_SA from being set up include at least the following:

   (References: "Questions about internal address" thread, April 2005.)

4.3.  Diffie-Hellman for First CHILD_SA

   Section 1.2 shows that IKE_AUTH messages do not contain KEi/KEr or
   Ni/Nr payloads.  This implies that the SA payload in IKE_AUTH
   exchange cannot contain Transform Type 4 (Diffie-Hellman Group) with
   any other value than NONE.  Implementations should probably leave the
   transform out entirely in this case.

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4.4.  Extended Sequence Numbers (ESN) Transform

   The description of the ESN transform in Section 3.3 has be proved
   difficult to understand.  The ESN transform has the following

   o  A proposal containing one ESN transform with value 0 means "do not
      use extended sequence numbers".

   o  A proposal containing one ESN transform with value 1 means "use
      extended sequence numbers".

   o  A proposal containing two ESN transforms with values 0 and 1 means
      "I support both normal and extended sequence numbers, you choose".
      (Obviously this case is only allowed in requests; the response
      will contain only one ESN transform.)

   In most cases, the exchange initiator will include either the first
   or third alternative in its SA payload.  The second alternative is
   rarely useful for the initiator: it means that using normal sequence
   numbers is not acceptable (so if the responder does not support ESNs,
   the exchange will fail with NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN).

   Note that including the ESN transform is mandatory when creating
   ESP/AH SAs (it was optional in earlier drafts of the IKEv2

   (References: "Technical change needed to IKEv2 before publication",
   "STRAW POLL: Dealing with the ESN negotiation interop issue in IKEv2"
   and "Results of straw poll regarding: IKEv2 interoperability issue"
   threads, March-April 2005.)


   The description of ESP_TFC_PADDING_NOT_SUPPORTED notification in
   Section 3.10.1 says that "This notification asserts that the sending
   endpoint will NOT accept packets that contain Flow Confidentiality
   (TFC) padding".

   However, the text does not say in which messages this notification
   should be included, or whether the scope of this notification is a
   single CHILD_SA or all CHILD_SAs of the peer.

   Our interpretation is that the scope is a single CHILD_SA, and thus
   this notification is included in messages containing an SA payload
   negotiating a CHILD_SA.  If neither endpoint accepts TFC padding,
   this notification will be included in both the request proposing an
   SA and the response accepting it.  If this notification is included

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   in only one of the messages, TFC padding can still be sent in one

4.6.  Negotiation of NON_FIRST_FRAGMENTS_ALSO

   NON_FIRST_FRAGMENTS_ALSO notification is described in Section 3.10.1
   simply as "Used for fragmentation control.  See [RFC4301] for

   [RFC4301] says "Implementations that will transmit non-initial
   fragments on a tunnel mode SA that makes use of non-trivial port (or
   ICMP type/code or MH type) selectors MUST notify a peer via the IKE
   NOTIFY NON_FIRST_FRAGMENTS_ALSO payload.  The peer MUST reject this
   proposal if it will not accept non-initial fragments in this context.
   If an implementation does not successfully negotiate transmission of
   non-initial fragments for such an SA, it MUST NOT send such fragments
   over the SA."

   However, it is not clear exactly how the negotiation works.  Our
   interpretation is that the negotiation works the same way as for
   IPCOMP_SUPPORTED and USE_TRANSPORT_MODE: sending non-first fragments
   is enabled only if NON_FIRST_FRAGMENTS_ALSO notification is included
   in both the request proposing an SA and the response accepting it.
   In other words, if the peer "rejects this proposal", it only omits
   NON_FIRST_FRAGMENTS_ALSO notification from the response, but does not
   reject the whole CHILD_SA creation.

4.7.  Semantics of Complex Traffic Selector Payloads

   As described in Section 3.13, the TSi/TSr payloads can include one or
   more individual traffic selectors.

   There is no requirement that TSi and TSr contain the same number of
   individual traffic selectors.  Thus, they are interpreted as follows:
   a packet matches a given TSi/TSr if it matches at least one of the
   individual selectors in TSi, and at least one of the individual
   selectors in TSr.

   For instance, the following traffic selectors:

        TSi = ((17, 100,,
               (17, 200,
        TSr = ((17, 300,,
               (17, 400,

   would match UDP packets from to anywhere, with any of the
   four combinations of source/destination ports (100,300), (100,400),
   (200,300), and (200, 400).

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   This implies that some types of policies may require several CHILD_SA
   pairs.  For instance, a policy matching only source/destination ports
   (100,300) and (200,400), but not the other two combinations, cannot
   be negotiated as a single CHILD_SA pair using IKEv2.

   (References: "IKEv2 Traffic Selectors?" thread, Feb 2005.)

4.8.  ICMP Type/Code in Traffic Selector Payloads

   The traffic selector types 7 and 8 can also refer to ICMP type and
   code fields.  As described in Section 3.13.1, "For the ICMP protocol,
   the two one-octet fields Type and Code are treated as a single 16-bit
   integer (with Type in the most significant eight bits and Code in the
   least significant eight bits) port number for the purposes of
   filtering based on this field."

   Since ICMP packets do not have separate source and destination port
   fields, there is some room for confusion what exactly the four TS
   payloads (two in the request, two in the response, each containing
   both start and end port fields) should contain.

   The answer to this question can be found from [RFC4301] Section

   To give a concrete example, if a host at wants to create
   a transport mode SA for sending "Destination Unreachable" packets
   (ICMPv4 type 3) to, but is not willing to receive them
   over this SA pair, the CREATE_CHILD_SA exchange would look like this:

      Initiator                   Responder
     -----------                 -----------
                TSi(1, 0x0300-0x03FF,,
                TSr(1, 65535-0, } -->

         <-- HDR, SK { N(USE_TRANSPORT_MODE), SA, Nr,
                       TSi(1, 0x0300-0x03FF,,
                       TSr(1, 65535-0, }

   Since IKEv2 always creates IPsec SAs in pairs, two SAs are also
   created in this case, even though the second SA is never used for
   data traffic.

   An exchange creating an SA pair that can be used both for sending and
   receiving "Destination Unreachable" places the same value in all the

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      Initiator                   Responder
     -----------                 -----------
                TSi(1, 0x0300-0x03FF,,
                TSr(1, 0x0300-0x03FF, } -->

         <-- HDR, SK { N(USE_TRANSPORT_MODE), SA, Nr,
                       TSi(1, 0x0300-0x03FF,,
                       TSr(1, 0x0300-0x03FF, }

   (References: "ICMP and MH TSs for IKEv2" thread, Sep 2005.)

4.9.  Mobility Header in Traffic Selector Payloads

   Traffic selectors can use IP Protocol ID 135 to match the IPv6
   mobility header [MIPv6].  However, the IKEv2 specification does not
   define how to represent the "MH Type" field in traffic selectors.

   At some point, it was expected that this will be defined in a
   separate document later.  However, [RFC4301] says that "For IKE, the
   IPv6 mobility header message type (MH type) is placed in the most
   significant eight bits of the 16 bit local "port" selector".  The
   direction semantics of TSi/TSr port fields are the same as for ICMP
   and are described in the previous section.

   (References: Tero Kivinen's mail "Issue #86: Add IPv6 mobility header
   message type as selector", 2003-10-14.  "ICMP and MH TSs for IKEv2"
   thread, Sep 2005.)

4.10.  Narrowing the Traffic Selectors

   Section 2.9 describes how traffic selectors are negotiated when
   creating a CHILD_SA.  A more concise summary of the narrowing process
   is presented below.

   o  If the responder's policy does not allow any part of the traffic
      covered by TSi/TSr, it responds with TS_UNACCEPTABLE.

   o  If the responder's policy allows the entire set of traffic covered
      by TSi/TSr, no narrowing is necessary, and the responder can
      return the same TSi/TSr values.

   o  Otherwise, narrowing is needed.  If the responder's policy allows
      all traffic covered by TSi[1]/TSr[1] (the first traffic selectors
      in TSi/TSr) but not entire TSi/TSr, the responder narrows to an
      acceptable subset of TSi/TSr that includes TSi[1]/TSr[1].

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   o  If the responder's policy does not allow all traffic covered by
      TSi[1]/TSr[1], but does allow some parts of TSi/TSr, it narrows to
      an acceptable subset of TSi/TSr.

   In the last two cases, there may be several subsets that are
   acceptable (but their union is not); in this case, the responder
   arbitrarily chooses one of them and includes ADDITIONAL_TS_POSSIBLE
   notification in the response.


   The description of the SINGLE_PAIR_REQUIRED notify payload in
   Sections 2.9 and 3.10.1 is not fully consistent.

   We do not attempt to describe this payload in this document either,
   since it is expected that most implementations will not have policies
   that require separate SAs for each address pair.

   Thus, if only some part (or parts) of the TSi/TSr proposed by the
   initiator is (are) acceptable to the responder, most responders
   should simply narrow TSi/TSr to an acceptable subset (as described in
   the last two paragraphs of Section 2.9), rather than use

4.12.  Traffic Selectors Violating Own Policy

   Section 2.9 describes traffic selector negotiation in great detail.
   One aspect of this negotiation that may need some clarification is
   that when creating a new SA, the initiator should not propose traffic
   selectors that violate its own policy.  If this rule is not followed,
   valid traffic may be dropped.

   This is best illustrated by an example.  Suppose that host A has a
   policy whose effect is that traffic to is sent via host B
   encrypted using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), and traffic to
   all other hosts in is also sent via B, but encrypted
   using Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES).  Suppose also that host
   B accepts any combination of AES and 3DES.

   If host A now proposes an SA that uses 3DES, and includes TSr
   containing (, this will be accepted by host
   B.  Now, host B can also use this SA to send traffic from,
   but those packets will be dropped by A since it requires the use of
   AES for those traffic.  Even if host A creates a new SA only for that uses AES, host B may freely continue to use the first
   SA for the traffic.  In this situation, when proposing the SA, host A
   should have followed its own policy, and included a TSr containing
   ((,( instead.

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   In general, if (1) the initiator makes a proposal "for traffic X
   (TSi/TSr), do SA", and (2) for some subset X' of X, the initiator
   does not actually accept traffic X' with SA, and (3) the initiator
   would be willing to accept traffic X' with some SA' (!=SA), valid
   traffic can be unnecessarily dropped since the responder can apply
   either SA or SA' to traffic X'.

   (References: "Question about "narrowing" ..." thread, Feb 2005.
   "IKEv2 needs a "policy usage mode"..." thread, Feb 2005.  "IKEv2
   Traffic Selectors?" thread, Feb 2005.  "IKEv2 traffic selector
   negotiation examples", 2004-08-08.)

4.13.  Traffic Selector Authorization

   IKEv2 relies on information in the Peer Authorization Database (PAD)
   when determining what kind of IPsec SAs a peer is allowed to create.
   This process is described in [RFC4301] Section 4.4.3.  When a peer
   requests the creation of an IPsec SA with some traffic selectors, the
   PAD must contain "Child SA Authorization Data" linking the identity
   authenticated by IKEv2 and the addresses permitted for traffic

   For example, the PAD might be configured so that authenticated
   identity "sgw23.example.com" is allowed to create IPsec SAs for, meaning this security gateway is a valid
   "representative" for these addresses.  Host-to-host IPsec requires
   similar entries, linking, for example, "fooserver4.example.com" with, meaning this identity a valid "owner" or
   "representative" of the address in question.

   As noted in [RFC4301], "It is necessary to impose these constraints
   on creation of child SAs to prevent an authenticated peer from
   spoofing IDs associated with other, legitimate peers."  In the
   example given above, a correct configuration of the PAD prevents
   sgw23 from creating IPsec SAs with address and prevents
   fooserver4 from creating IPsec SAs with addresses from

   It is important to note that simply sending IKEv2 packets using some
   particular address does not imply a permission to create IPsec SAs
   with that address in the traffic selectors.  For example, even if
   sgw23 would be able to spoof its IP address as, it could
   not create IPsec SAs matching fooserver4's traffic.

   The IKEv2 specification does not specify how exactly IP address
   assignment using configuration payloads interacts with the PAD.  Our
   interpretation is that when a security gateway assigns an address

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   using configuration payloads, it also creates a temporary PAD entry
   linking the authenticated peer identity and the newly allocated inner

   It has been recognized that configuring the PAD correctly may be
   difficult in some environments.  For instance, if IPsec is used
   between a pair of hosts whose addresses are allocated dynamically
   using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), it is extremely
   difficult to ensure that the PAD specifies the correct "owner" for
   each IP address.  This would require a mechanism to securely convey
   address assignments from the DHCP server and link them to identities
   authenticated using IKEv2.

   Due to this limitation, some vendors have been known to configure
   their PADs to allow an authenticated peer to create IPsec SAs with
   traffic selectors containing the same address that was used for the
   IKEv2 packets.  In environments where IP spoofing is possible (i.e.,
   almost everywhere) this essentially allows any peer to create IPsec
   SAs with any traffic selectors.  This is not an appropriate or secure
   configuration in most circumstances.  See [Aura05] for an extensive
   discussion about this issue, and the limitations of host-to-host
   IPsec in general.

5.  Rekeying and Deleting SAs

5.1.  Rekeying SAs with the CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange

   Continued from Section 4.1 of this document.

 NEW-1.3.2 Rekeying IKE_SAs with the CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange

      The CREATE_CHILD_SA request for rekeying an IKE_SA is:

          Initiator                                 Responder
         -----------                               -----------
          HDR, SK {SA, Ni, [KEi]} -->

      The initiator sends SA offer(s) in the SA payload, a nonce in
      the Ni payload, and optionally a Diffie-Hellman value in the KEi

      The CREATE_CHILD_SA response for rekeying an IKE_SA is:

                                     <--    HDR, SK {SA, Nr, [KEr]}

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      The responder replies (using the same Message ID to respond)
      with the accepted offer in an SA payload, a nonce in the Nr
      payload, and, optionally, a Diffie-Hellman value in the KEr

      The new IKE_SA has its message counters set to 0, regardless of
      what they were in the earlier IKE_SA.  The window size starts at
      1 for any new IKE_SA.  The new initiator and responder SPIs are
      supplied in the SPI fields of the SA payloads.

 NEW-1.3.3 Rekeying CHILD_SAs with the CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange

      The CREATE_CHILD_SA request for rekeying a CHILD_SA is:

          Initiator                                 Responder
         -----------                               -----------
          HDR, SK {N(REKEY_SA), [N+], SA,
              Ni, [KEi], TSi, TSr}  -->

      The leading Notify payload of type REKEY_SA identifies the
      CHILD_SA being rekeyed, and it contains the SPI that the initiator
      expects in the headers of inbound packets.  In addition, the
      initiator sends SA offer(s) in the SA payload, a nonce in the Ni
      payload, optionally a Diffie-Hellman value in the KEi payload,
      and the proposed traffic selectors in the TSi and TSr payloads.
      The request can also contain Notify payloads that specify
      additional details for the CHILD_SA.

      The CREATE_CHILD_SA response for rekeying a CHILD_SA is:

                                     <--    HDR, SK {[N+], SA, Nr,
                                                  [KEr], TSi, TSr}

      The responder replies with the accepted offer in an SA payload,
      and a Diffie-Hellman value in the KEr payload if KEi was
      included in the request and the selected cryptographic suite
      includes that group.

      The traffic selectors for traffic to be sent on that SA are
      specified in the TS payloads in the response, which may be a
      subset of what the initiator of the CHILD_SA proposed.

5.2.  Rekeying the IKE_SA vs. Reauthentication

   Rekeying the IKE_SA and reauthentication are different concepts in
   IKEv2.  Rekeying the IKE_SA establishes new keys for the IKE_SA and
   resets the Message ID counters, but it does not authenticate the
   parties again (no AUTH or EAP payloads are involved).

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   While rekeying the IKE_SA may be important in some environments,
   reauthentication (the verification that the parties still have access
   to the long-term credentials) is often more important.

   IKEv2 does not have any special support for reauthentication.
   Reauthentication is done by creating a new IKE_SA from scratch (using
   IKE_SA_INIT/IKE_AUTH exchanges, without any REKEY_SA notify
   payloads), creating new CHILD_SAs within the new IKE_SA (without
   REKEY_SA notify payloads), and finally deleting the old IKE_SA (which
   deletes the old CHILD_SAs as well).

   This means that reauthentication also establishes new keys for the
   IKE_SA and CHILD_SAs.  Therefore, while rekeying can be performed
   more often than reauthentication, the situation where "authentication
   lifetime" is shorter than "key lifetime" does not make sense.

   While creation of a new IKE_SA can be initiated by either party
   (initiator or responder in the original IKE_SA), the use of EAP
   authentication and/or configuration payloads means in practice that
   reauthentication has to be initiated by the same party as the
   original IKE_SA.  IKEv2 base specification does not allow the
   responder to request reauthentication in this case; however, this
   functionality is added in [ReAuth].

   (References: "Reauthentication in IKEv2" thread, Oct/Nov 2004.)

5.3.  SPIs When Rekeying the IKE_SA

   Section 2.18 says that "New initiator and responder SPIs are supplied
   in the SPI fields".  This refers to the SPI fields in the Proposal
   structures inside the Security Association (SA) payloads, not the SPI
   fields in the IKE header.

   (References: Tom Stiemerling's mail "Rekey IKE SA", 2005-01-24.
   Geoffrey Huang's reply, 2005-01-24.)

5.4.  SPI When Rekeying a CHILD_SA

   Section 3.10.1 says that in REKEY_SA notifications, "The SPI field
   identifies the SA being rekeyed."

   Since CHILD_SAs always exist in pairs, there are two different SPIs.
   The SPI placed in the REKEY_SA notification is the SPI the exchange
   initiator would expect in inbound ESP or AH packets (just as in
   Delete payloads).

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5.5.  Changing PRFs When Rekeying the IKE_SA

   When rekeying the IKE_SA, Section 2.18 says that "SKEYSEED for the
   new IKE_SA is computed using SK_d from the existing IKE_SA as

      SKEYSEED = prf(SK_d (old), [g^ir (new)] | Ni | Nr)"

   If the old and new IKE_SA selected a different PRF, it is not totally
   clear which PRF should be used.

   Since the rekeying exchange belongs to the old IKE_SA, it is the old
   IKE_SA's PRF that is used.  This also follows the principle that the
   same key (the old SK_d) should not be used with multiple
   cryptographic algorithms.

   Note that this may work poorly if the new IKE_SA's PRF has a fixed
   key size, since the output of the PRF may not be of the correct size.
   This supports our opinion earlier in the document that the use of
   PRFs with a fixed key size is a bad idea.

   (References: "Changing PRFs when rekeying the IKE_SA" thread, June

5.6.  Deleting vs. Closing SAs

   The IKEv2 specification talks about "closing" and "deleting" SAs, but
   it is not always clear what exactly is meant.  However, other parts
   of the specification make it clear that when local state related to a
   CHILD_SA is removed, the SA must also be actively deleted with a
   Delete payload.

   In particular, Section 2.4 says that "If an IKE endpoint chooses to
   delete CHILD_SAs, it MUST send Delete payloads to the other end
   notifying it of the deletion".  Section 1.4 also explains that "ESP
   and AH SAs always exist in pairs, with one SA in each direction.
   When an SA is closed, both members of the pair MUST be closed."

5.7.  Deleting a CHILD_SA Pair

   Section 1.4 describes how to delete SA pairs using the Informational
   exchange: "To delete an SA, an INFORMATIONAL exchange with one or
   more delete payloads is sent listing the SPIs (as they would be
   expected in the headers of inbound packets) of the SAs to be deleted.
   The recipient MUST close the designated SAs."

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   The "one or more delete payloads" phrase has caused some confusion.
   You never send delete payloads for the two sides of an SA in a single
   message.  If you have many SAs to delete at the same time (such as
   the nested example given in that paragraph), you include delete
   payloads for the inbound half of each SA in your Informational

5.8.  Deleting an IKE_SA

   Since IKE_SAs do not exist in pairs, it is not totally clear what the
   response message should contain when the request deleted the IKE_SA.

   Since there is no information that needs to be sent to the other side
   (except that the request was received), an empty Informational
   response seems like the most logical choice.

   (References: "Question about delete IKE SA" thread, May 2005.)

5.9.  Who is the original initiator of IKE_SA

   In the IKEv2 document, "initiator" refers to the party who initiated
   the exchange being described, and "original initiator" refers to the
   party who initiated the whole IKE_SA.  However, there is some
   potential for confusion because the IKE_SA can be rekeyed by either

   To clear up this confusion, we propose that "original initiator"
   always refers to the party who initiated the exchange that resulted
   in the current IKE_SA.  In other words, if the "original responder"
   starts rekeying the IKE_SA, that party becomes the "original
   initiator" of the new IKE_SA.

   (References: Paul Hoffman's mail "Original initiator in IKEv2",

5.10.  Comparing Nonces

   Section 2.8 about rekeying says that "If redundant SAs are created
   though such a collision, the SA created with the lowest of the four
   nonces used in the two exchanges SHOULD be closed by the endpoint
   that created it."

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   Here "lowest" uses an octet-by-octet (lexicographical) comparison
   (instead of, for instance, comparing the nonces as large integers).
   In other words, start by comparing the first octet; if they're equal,
   move to the next octet, and so on.  If you reach the end of one
   nonce, that nonce is the lower one.

   (References: "IKEv2 rekeying question" thread, July 2005.)

5.11.  Exchange Collisions

   Since IKEv2 exchanges can be initiated by both peers, it is possible
   that two exchanges affecting the same SA partly overlap.  This can
   lead to a situation where the SA state information is temporarily not
   synchronized, and a peer can receive a request it cannot process in a
   normal fashion.  Some of these corner cases are discussed in the
   specification, some are not.

   Obviously, using a window size greater than one leads to infinitely
   more complex situations, especially if requests are processed out of
   order.  In this section, we concentrate on problems that can arise
   even with window size 1.

   (References: "IKEv2: invalid SPI in DELETE payload" thread, Dec 2005/
   Jan 2006.  "Problem with exchanges collisions" thread, Dec 2005.)

5.11.1.  Simultaneous CHILD_SA Close

   Probably the simplest case happens if both peers decide to close the
   same CHILD_SA pair at the same time:

      Host A                      Host B
     --------                    --------
      send req1: D(SPIa) -->
                              <-- send req2: D(SPIb)
                              --> recv req1
                              <-- send resp1: ()
      recv resp1
      recv req2
      send resp2: () -->
                              --> recv resp2

   This case is described in Section 1.4 and is handled by omitting the
   Delete payloads from the response messages.

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5.11.2.  Simultaneous IKE_SA Close

   Both peers can also decide to close the IKE_SA at the same time.  The
   desired end result is obvious; however, in certain cases the final
   exchanges may not be fully completed.

      Host A                      Host B
     --------                    --------
      send req1: D() -->
                              <-- send req2: D()
                              --> recv req1

   At this point, host B should reply as usual (with empty Informational
   response), close the IKE_SA, and stop retransmitting req2.  This is
   because once host A receives resp1, it may not be able to reply any
   longer.  The situation is symmetric, so host A should behave the same

      Host A                      Host B
     --------                    --------
                              <-- send resp1: ()
      send resp2: ()

   Even if neither resp1 nor resp2 ever arrives, the end result is still
   correct: the IKE_SA is gone.  The same happens if host A never
   receives req2.

5.11.3.  Simultaneous CHILD_SA Rekeying

   Another case that is described in the specification is simultaneous
   rekeying.  Section 2.8 says

      "If the two ends have the same lifetime policies, it is possible
      that both will initiate a rekeying at the same time (which will
      result in redundant SAs).  To reduce the probability of this
      happening, the timing of rekeying requests SHOULD be jittered
      (delayed by a random amount of time after the need for rekeying is

      This form of rekeying may temporarily result in multiple similar
      SAs between the same pairs of nodes.  When there are two SAs
      eligible to receive packets, a node MUST accept incoming packets
      through either SA.  If redundant SAs are created though such a
      collision, the SA created with the lowest of the four nonces used
      in the two exchanges SHOULD be closed by the endpoint that created

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   However, a better explanation on what impact this has on
   implementations is needed.  Assume that hosts A and B have an
   existing IPsec SA pair with SPIs (SPIa1,SPIb1), and both start
   rekeying it at the same time:

      Host A                      Host B
     --------                    --------
      send req1: N(REKEY_SA,SPIa1),
         SA(..,SPIa2,..),Ni1,..  -->
                              <-- send req2: N(REKEY_SA,SPIb1),
      recv req2 <--

   At this point, A knows there is a simultaneous rekeying going on.
   However, it cannot yet know which of the exchanges will have the
   lowest nonce, so it will just note the situation and respond as

      send resp2: SA(..,SPIa3,..),Nr1,.. -->
                              --> recv req1

   Now B also knows that simultaneous rekeying is going on.  Similarly
   as host A, it has to respond as usual.

                              <-- send resp1: SA(..,SPIb3,..),Nr2,..
       recv resp1 <--
                              --> recv resp2

   At this point, there are three CHILD_SA pairs between A and B (the
   old one and two new ones).  A and B can now compare the nonces.
   Suppose that the lowest nonce was Nr1 in message resp2; in this case,
   B (the sender of req2) deletes the redundant new SA, and A (the node
   that initiated the surviving rekeyed SA) deletes the old one.

      send req3: D(SPIa1) -->
                              <-- send req4: D(SPIb2)
                              --> recv req3
                              <-- send resp4: D(SPIb1)
      recv req4 <--
      send resp4: D(SPIa3) -->

   The rekeying is now finished.

   However, there is a second possible sequence of events that can
   happen if some packets are lost in the network, resulting in
   retransmissions.  The rekeying begins as usual, but A's first packet
   (req1) is lost.

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      Host A                      Host B
     --------                    --------
      send req1: N(REKEY_SA,SPIa1),
         SA(..,SPIa2,..),Ni1,..  -->  (lost)
                              <-- send req2: N(REKEY_SA,SPIb1),
      recv req2 <--
      send resp2: SA(..,SPIa3,..),Nr1,.. -->
                              --> recv resp2
                              <-- send req3: D(SPIb1)
      recv req3 <--
      send resp3: D(SPIa1) -->
                              --> recv resp3

   From B's point of view, the rekeying is now completed, and since it
   has not yet received A's req1, it does not even know that these was
   simultaneous rekeying.  However, A will continue retransmitting the
   message, and eventually it will reach B.

      resend req1 -->
                               --> recv req1

   What should B do in this point?  To B, it looks like A is trying to
   rekey an SA that no longer exists; thus failing the request with
   something non-fatal such as NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN seems like a
   reasonable approach.

                               <-- send resp1: N(NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN)
      recv resp1 <--

   When A receives this error, it already knows there was simultaneous
   rekeying, so it can ignore the error message.

5.11.4.  Simultaneous IKE_SA Rekeying

   Probably the most complex case occurs when both peers try to rekey
   the IKE_SA at the same time.  Basically, the text in Section 2.8
   applies to this case as well; however, it is important to ensure that
   the CHILD_SAs are inherited by the right IKE_SA.

   The case where both endpoints notice the simultaneous rekeying works
   the same way as with CHILD_SAs.  After the CREATE_CHILD_SA exchanges,
   three IKE_SAs exist between A and B; the one containing the lowest
   nonce inherits the CHILD_SAs.

   However, there is a twist to the other case where one rekeying
   finishes first:

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      Host A                      Host B
     --------                    --------
      send req1:
         SA(..,SPIa1,..),Ni1,.. -->
                              <-- send req2: SA(..,SPIb1,..),Ni2,..
                              --> recv req1
                              <-- send resp1: SA(..,SPIb2,..),Nr2,..
      recv resp1 <--
      send req3: D() -->
                              --> recv req3

   At this point, host B sees a request to close the IKE_SA.  There's
   not much more to do than to reply as usual.  However, at this point
   host B should stop retransmitting req2, since once host A receives
   resp3, it will delete all the state associated with the old IKE_SA
   and will not be able to reply to it.

                              <-- send resp3: ()

5.11.5.  Closing and Rekeying a CHILD_SA

   A case similar to simultaneous rekeying can occur if one peer decides
   to close an SA and the other peer tries to rekey it:

      Host A                      Host B
     --------                    --------
      send req1: D(SPIa) -->
                              <-- send req2: N(REKEY_SA,SPIb),SA,..
                              --> recv req1

   At this point, host B notices that host A is trying to close an SA
   that host B is currently rekeying.  Replying as usual is probably the
   best choice:

                              <-- send resp1: D(SPIb)

   Depending on in which order req2 and resp1 arrive, host A sees either
   a request to rekey an SA that it is currently closing, or a request
   to rekey an SA that does not exist.  In both cases,
   NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN is probably fine.

      recv req2
      recv resp1
      send resp2: N(NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN) -->
                              --> recv resp2

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5.11.6.  Closing a New CHILD_SA

   Yet another case occurs when host A creates a CHILD_SA pair, but soon
   thereafter host B decides to delete it (possible because its policy

      Host A                      Host B
     --------                    --------
      send req1: [N(REKEY_SA,SPIa1)],
         SA(..,SPIa2,..),.. -->
                              --> recv req1
                       (lost) <-- send resp1: SA(..,SPIb2,..),..

                              <-- send req2: D(SPIb2)
      recv req2

   At this point, host A has not yet received message resp1 (and is
   retransmitting message req1), so it does not recognize SPIb in
   message req2.  What should host A do?

   One option would be to reply with an empty Informational response.
   However, this same reply would also be sent if host A has received
   resp1, but has already sent a new request to delete the SA that was
   just created.  This would lead to a situation where the peers are no
   longer in sync about which SAs exist between them.  However, host B
   would eventually notice that the other half of the CHILD_SA pair has
   not been deleted.  Section 1.4 describes this case and notes that "a
   node SHOULD regard half-closed connections as anomalous and audit
   their existence should they persist", and continues that "if
   connection state becomes sufficiently messed up, a node MAY close the

   Another solution that has been proposed is to reply with an
   INVALID_SPI notification that contains SPIb.  This would explicitly
   tell host B that the SA was not deleted, so host B could try deleting
   it again later.  However, this usage is not part of the IKEv2
   specification and would not be in line with normal use of the
   INVALID_SPI notification where the data field contains the SPI the
   recipient of the notification would put in outbound packets.

   Yet another solution would be to ignore req2 at this time and wait
   until we have received resp1.  However, this alternative has not been
   fully analyzed at this time; in general, ignoring valid requests is
   always a bit dangerous, because both endpoints could do it, leading
   to a deadlock.

   This document recommends the first alternative.

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5.11.7.  Rekeying a New CHILD_SA

   Yet another case occurs when a CHILD_SA is rekeyed soon after it has
   been created:

      Host A                      Host B
     --------                    --------
      send req1: [N(REKEY_SA,SPIa1)],
         SA(..,SPIa2,..),..  -->
                       (lost) <-- send resp1: SA(..,SPIb2,..),..

                              <-- send req2: N(REKEY_SA,SPIb2),
      recv req2 <--

   To host A, this looks like a request to rekey an SA that does not
   exist.  Like in the simultaneous rekeying case, replying with
   NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN is probably reasonable:

      send resp2: N(NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN) -->
      recv resp1

5.11.8.  Collisions with IKE_SA Rekeying

   Another set of cases occurs when one peer starts rekeying the IKE_SA
   at the same time the other peer starts creating, rekeying, or closing
   a CHILD_SA.  Suppose that host B starts creating a CHILD_SA, and soon
   after, host A starts rekeying the IKE_SA:

      Host A                      Host B
     --------                    --------
                              <-- send req1: SA,Ni1,TSi,TSr
      send req2: SA,Ni2,.. -->
                              --> recv req2

   What should host B do at this point?  Replying as usual would seem
   like a reasonable choice:

                              <-- send resp2: SA,Ni2,..
      recv resp2 <--
      send req3: D() -->
                              --> recv req3

   Now, a problem arises: If host B now replies normally with an empty
   Informational response, this will cause host A to delete state
   associated with the IKE_SA.  This means host B should stop
   retransmitting req1.  However, host B cannot know whether or not host
   A has received req1.  If host A did receive it, it will move the

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   CHILD_SA to the new IKE_SA as usual, and the state information will
   then be out of sync.

   It seems this situation is tricky to handle correctly.  Our proposal
   is as follows: if a host receives a request to rekey the IKE_SA when
   it has CHILD_SAs in "half-open" state (currently being created or
   rekeyed), it should reply with NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN.  If a host
   receives a request to create or rekey a CHILD_SA after it has started
   rekeying the IKE_SA, it should reply with NO_ADDITIONAL_SAS.

   The case where CHILD_SAs are being closed is even worse.  Our
   recommendation is that if a host receives a request to rekey the
   IKE_SA when it has CHILD_SAs in "half-closed" state (currently being
   closed), it should reply with NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN.  And if a host
   receives a request to close a CHILD_SA after it has started rekeying
   the IKE_SA, it should reply with an empty Informational response.
   This ensures that at least the other peer will eventually notice that
   the CHILD_SA is still in "half-closed" state and will start a new
   IKE_SA from scratch.

5.11.9.  Closing and Rekeying the IKE_SA

   The final case considered in this section occurs if one peer decides
   to close the IKE_SA while the other peer tries to rekey it.

      Host A                      Host B
     --------                    --------
      send req1: SA(..,SPIa1,..),Ni1 -->
                              <-- send req2: D()
                              --> recv req1
      recv req2 <--

   At this point, host B should probably reply with NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN,
   and host A should reply as usual, close the IKE_SA, and stop
   retransmitting req1.

                              <-- send resp1: N(NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN)
      send resp2: ()

   If host A wants to continue communication with B, it can now start a
   new IKE_SA.

5.11.10.  Summary

   If a host receives a request to rekey:

   o  a CHILD_SA pair that the host is currently trying to close: reply

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   o  a CHILD_SA pair that the host is currently rekeying: reply as
      usual, but prepare to close redundant SAs later based on the

   o  a CHILD_SA pair that does not exist: reply with

   o  the IKE_SA, and the host is currently rekeying the IKE_SA: reply
      as usual, but prepare to close redundant SAs and move inherited
      CHILD_SAs later based on the nonces.

   o  the IKE_SA, and the host is currently creating, rekeying, or
      closing a CHILD_SA: reply with NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN.

   o  the IKE_SA, and the host is currently trying to close the IKE_SA:
      reply with NO_PROPOSAL_CHOSEN.

   If a host receives a request to close:

   o  a CHILD_SA pair that the host is currently trying to close: reply
      without Delete payloads.

   o  a CHILD_SA pair that the host is currently rekeying: reply as
      usual, with Delete payload.

   o  a CHILD_SA pair that does not exist: reply without Delete

   o  the IKE_SA, and the host is currently rekeying the IKE_SA: reply
      as usual, and forget about our own rekeying request.

   o  the IKE_SA, and the host is currently trying to close the IKE_SA:
      reply as usual, and forget about our own close request.

   If a host receives a request to create or rekey a CHILD_SA when it is
   currently rekeying the IKE_SA: reply with NO_ADDITIONAL_SAS.

   If a host receives a request to delete a CHILD_SA when it is
   currently rekeying the IKE_SA: reply without Delete payloads.

5.12.  Diffie-Hellman and Rekeying the IKE_SA

   There has been some confusion whether doing a new Diffie-Hellman
   exchange is mandatory when the IKE_SA is rekeyed.

   It seems that this case is allowed by the IKEv2 specification.
   Section 2.18 shows the Diffie-Hellman term (g^ir) in brackets.
   Section 3.3.3 does not contradict this when it says that including

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   the D-H transform is mandatory: although including the transform is
   mandatory, it can contain the value "NONE".

   However, having the option to skip the Diffie-Hellman exchange when
   rekeying the IKE_SA does not add useful functionality to the
   protocol.  The main purpose of rekeying the IKE_SA is to ensure that
   the compromise of old keying material does not provide information
   about the current keys, or vice versa.  This requires performing the
   Diffie-Hellman exchange when rekeying.  Furthermore, it is likely
   that this option would have been removed from the protocol as
   unnecessary complexity had it been discussed earlier.

   Given this, we recommend that implementations should have a hard-
   coded policy that requires performing a new Diffie-Hellman exchange
   when rekeying the IKE_SA.  In other words, the initiator should not
   propose the value "NONE" for the D-H transform, and the responder
   should not accept such a proposal.  This policy also implies that a
   successful exchange rekeying the IKE_SA always includes the KEi/KEr

   (References: "Rekeying IKE_SAs with the CREATE_CHILD_SA exhange"
   thread, Oct 2005.  "Comments of
   draft-eronen-ipsec-ikev2-clarifications-02.txt" thread, Apr 2005.)

6.  Configuration Payloads

6.1.  Assigning IP Addresses

   Section 2.9 talks about traffic selector negotiation and mentions
   that "In support of the scenario described in section 1.1.3, an
   initiator may request that the responder assign an IP address and
   tell the initiator what it is."

   This sentence is correct, but its placement is slightly confusing.
   IKEv2 does allow the initiator to request assignment of an IP address
   from the responder, but this is done using configuration payloads,
   not traffic selector payloads.  An address in a TSi payload in a
   response does not mean that the responder has assigned that address
   to the initiator; it only means that if packets matching these
   traffic selectors are sent by the initiator, IPsec processing can be
   performed as agreed for this SA.  The TSi payload itself does not
   give the initiator permission to configure the initiator's TCP/IP
   stack with the address and use it as its source address.

   In other words, IKEv2 does not have two different mechanisms for
   assigning addresses, but only one: configuration payloads.  In the
   scenario described in Section 1.1.3, both configuration and traffic
   selector payloads are usually included in the same message, and they

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   often contain the same information in the response message (see
   Section 6.3 of this document for some examples).  However, their
   semantics are still different.

6.2.  Requesting any INTERNAL_IP4/IP6_ADDRESS

   When describing the INTERNAL_IP4/IP6_ADDRESS attributes, Section
   3.15.1 says that "In a request message, the address specified is a
   requested address (or zero if no specific address is requested)".
   The question here is whether "zero" means an address "" or a
   zero-length string.

   Earlier, the same section also says that "If an attribute in the
   CFG_REQUEST Configuration Payload is not zero-length, it is taken as
   a suggestion for that attribute".  Also, the table of configuration
   attributes shows that the length of INTERNAL_IP4_ADDRESS is either "0
   or 4 octets", and likewise, INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS is either "0 or 17

   Thus, if the client does not request a specific address, it includes
   a zero-length INTERNAL_IP4/IP6_ADDRESS attribute, not an attribute
   containing an all-zeroes address.  The example in 2.19 is thus
   incorrect, since it shows the attribute as

   However, since the value is only a suggestion, implementations are
   recommended to ignore suggestions they do not accept; or in other
   words, to treat the same way a zero-length INTERNAL_IP4_ADDRESS,
   "", and any other addresses the implementation does not
   recognize as a reasonable suggestion.


   Section 3.15.1 describes the INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET as "The protected
   sub-networks that this edge-device protects.  This attribute is made
   up of two fields: the first is an IP address and the second is a
   netmask.  Multiple sub-networks MAY be requested.  The responder MAY
   respond with zero or more sub-network attributes."
   INTERNAL_IP6_SUBNET is defined in a similar manner.

   This raises two questions: first, since this information is usually
   included in the TSr payload, what functionality does this attribute
   add?  And second, what does this attribute mean in CFG_REQUESTs?

   For the first question, there seem to be two sensible
   interpretations.  Clearly TSr (in IKE_AUTH or CREATE_CHILD_SA
   response) indicates which subnets are accessible through the SA that
   was just created.

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   The first interpretation of the INTERNAL_IP4/6_SUBNET attributes is
   that they indicate additional subnets that can be reached through
   this gateway, but need a separate SA.  According to this
   interpretation, the INTERNAL_IP4/6_SUBNET attributes are useful
   mainly when they contain addresses not included in TSr.

   The second interpretation is that the INTERNAL_IP4/6_SUBNET
   attributes express the gateway's policy about what traffic should be
   sent through the gateway.  The client can choose whether other
   traffic (covered by TSr, but not in INTERNAL_IP4/6_SUBNET) is sent
   through the gateway or directly to the destination.  According to
   this interpretation, the attributes are useful mainly when TSr
   contains addresses not included in the INTERNAL_IP4/6_SUBNET

   It turns out that these two interpretations are not incompatible, but
   rather two sides of the same principle: traffic to the addresses
   listed in the INTERNAL_IP4/6_SUBNET attributes should be sent via
   this gateway.  If there are no existing IPsec SAs whose traffic
   selectors cover the address in question, new SAs have to be created.

   A couple of examples are given below.  For instance, if there are two
   subnets, and, and the client's request
   contains the following:

        CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
        TSi = (0, 0-65535,
        TSr = (0, 0-65535,

   Then a valid response could be the following (in which TSr and
   INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET contain the same information):

        CP(CFG_REPLY) =
        TSi = (0, 0-65535,
        TSr = ((0, 0-65535,,
               (0, 0-65535,

   In these cases, the INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET does not really carry any
   useful information.  Another possible reply would have been this:

        CP(CFG_REPLY) =

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        TSi = (0, 0-65535,
        TSr = (0, 0-65535,

   This would mean that the client can send all its traffic through the
   gateway, but the gateway does not mind if the client sends traffic
   not included by INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET directly to the destination
   (without going through the gateway).

   A different situation arises if the gateway has a policy that
   requires the traffic for the two subnets to be carried in separate
   SAs.  Then a response like this would indicate to the client that if
   it wants access to the second subnet, it needs to create a separate

        CP(CFG_REPLY) =
        TSi = (0, 0-65535,
        TSr = (0, 0-65535,

   INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET can also be useful if the client's TSr included
   only part of the address space.  For instance, if the client requests
   the following:

        CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
        TSi = (0, 0-65535,
        TSr = (0, 0-65535,

   Then the gateway's reply could be this:

        CP(CFG_REPLY) =
        TSi = (0, 0-65535,
        TSr = (0, 0-65535,

   It is less clear what the attributes mean in CFG_REQUESTs, and
   whether other lengths than zero make sense in this situation (but for
   INTERNAL_IP6_SUBNET, zero length is not allowed at all!).  This
   document recommends that implementations should not include

   For the IPv4 case, this document recommends using only netmasks
   consisting of some amount of "1" bits followed by "0" bits; for

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   instance, "" would not be a valid netmask for

   It is also worthwhile to note that the contents of the INTERNAL_IP4/
   6_SUBNET attributes do not imply link boundaries.  For instance, a
   gateway providing access to a large company intranet using addresses
   from the block can send a single INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET
   attribute ( even if the intranet has hundreds of
   routers and separate links.

   (References: Tero Kivinen's mail "Intent of couple of attributes in
   Configuration Payload in IKEv2?", 2004-11-19.  Srinivasa Rao
   Addepalli's mail "INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET and INTERNAL_IP6_SUBNET in
   IKEv2", 2004-09-10.  Yoav Nir's mail "Re: New I-D: IKEv2
   Clarifications and Implementation Guidelines", 2005-02-07.
   "Clarifications open issue: INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET/NETMASK" thread,
   April 2005.)


   Section 3.15.1 defines the INTERNAL_IP4_NETMASK attribute and says
   that "The internal network's netmask.  Only one netmask is allowed in
   the request and reply messages (e.g., and it MUST be
   used only with an INTERNAL_IP4_ADDRESS attribute".

   However, it is not clear what exactly this attribute means, as the
   concept of "netmask" is not very well defined for point-to-point
   links (unlike multi-access links, where it means "you can reach hosts
   inside this netmask directly using layer 2, instead of sending
   packets via a router").  Even if the operating system's TCP/IP stack
   requires a netmask to be configured, for point-to-point links it
   could be just set to  So, why is this information
   sent in IKEv2?

   One possible interpretation would be that the host is given a whole
   block of IP addresses instead of a single address.  This is also what
   Framed-IP-Netmask does in [RADIUS], the IPCP "subnet mask" extension
   does in PPP [IPCPSubnet], and the prefix length in the IPv6 Framed-
   IPv6-Prefix attribute does in [RADIUS6].  However, nothing in the
   specification supports this interpretation, and discussions on the
   IPsec WG mailing list have confirmed it was not intended.  Section
   3.15.1 also says that multiple addresses are assigned using multiple
   INTERNAL_IP4/6_ADDRESS attributes.

   Currently, this document's interpretation is the following:
   INTERNAL_IP4_NETMASK in a CFG_REPLY means roughly the same thing as
   INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET containing the same information ("send traffic to
   these addresses through me"), but also implies a link boundary.  For

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   instance, the client could use its own address and the netmask to
   calculate the broadcast address of the link.  (Whether the gateway
   will actually deliver broadcast packets to other VPN clients and/or
   other nodes connected to this link is another matter.)

   An empty INTERNAL_IP4_NETMASK attribute can be included in a
   CFG_REQUEST to request this information (although the gateway can
   send the information even when not requested).  However, it seems
   that non-empty values for this attribute do not make sense in

   Fortunately, Section 4 clearly says that a minimal implementation
   does not need to include or understand the INTERNAL_IP4_NETMASK
   attribute, and thus this document recommends that implementations
   should not use the INTERNAL_IP4_NETMASK attribute or assume that the
   other peer supports it.

   (References: Charlie Kaufman's mail "RE: Proposed Last Call based
   revisions to IKEv2", 2004-05-27.  Email discussion with Tero Kivinen,
   Jan 2005.  Yoav Nir's mail "Re: New I-D: IKEv2 Clarifications and
   Implementation Guidelines", 2005-02-07.  "Clarifications open issue:
   INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET/NETMASK" thread, April 2005.)

6.5.  Configuration Payloads for IPv6

   IKEv2 also defines configuration payloads for IPv6.  However, they
   are based on the corresponding IPv4 payloads and do not fully follow
   the "normal IPv6 way of doing things".

   A client can be assigned an IPv6 address using the
   INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS configuration payload.  A minimal exchange could
   look like this:

        CP(CFG_REQUEST) =
        TSi = (0, 0-65535, :: - FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)
        TSr = (0, 0-65535, :: - FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)

        CP(CFG_REPLY) =
        TSi = (0, 0-65535, 2001:DB8:0:1:2:3:4:5 - 2001:DB8:0:1:2:3:4:5)
        TSr = (0, 0-65535, :: - FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF)

   In particular, IPv6 stateless autoconfiguration or router
   advertisement messages are not used; neither is neighbor discovery.

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   The client can also send a non-empty INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS attribute
   in the CFG_REQUEST to request a specific address or interface
   identifier.  The gateway first checks if the specified address is
   acceptable, and if it is, returns that one.  If the address was not
   acceptable, the gateway will attempt to use the interface identifier
   with some other prefix; if even that fails, the gateway will select
   another interface identifier.

   The INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS attribute also contains a prefix length
   field.  When used in a CFG_REPLY, this corresponds to the
   INTERNAL_IP4_NETMASK attribute in the IPv4 case (and indeed, was
   called INTERNAL_IP6_NETMASK in earlier versions of the IKEv2 draft).
   See the previous section for more details.

   While this approach to configuring IPv6 addresses is reasonably
   simple, it has some limitations: IPsec tunnels configured using IKEv2
   are not fully-featured "interfaces" in the IPv6 addressing
   architecture [IPv6Addr] sense.  In particular, they do not
   necessarily have link-local addresses, and this may complicate the
   use of protocols that assume them, such as [MLDv2].  (Whether they
   are called "interfaces" in some particular operating system is a
   different issue.)

   (References: "VPN remote host configuration IPv6 ?" thread, May 2004.
   "Clarifications open issue: INTERNAL_IP4_SUBNET/NETMASK" thread,
   April 2005.)


   Section 3.15.1 defines the INTERNAL_IP6_NBNS attribute for sending
   the IPv6 address of NetBIOS name servers.

   However, NetBIOS is not defined for IPv6 and probably never will be.
   Thus, this attribute most likely does not make much sense.

   (Pointed out by Bernard Aboba in the IP Configuration Security (ICOS)
   BoF at IETF62.)


   Section 3.15.1 defines the INTERNAL_ADDRESS_EXPIRY attribute as
   "Specifies the number of seconds that the host can use the internal
   IP address.  The host MUST renew the IP address before this expiry
   time.  Only one of these attributes MAY be present in the reply."

   Expiry times and explicit renewals are primarily useful in
   environments like DHCP, where the server cannot reliably know when

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   the client has gone away.  However, in IKEv2 this is known, and the
   gateway can simply free the address when the IKE_SA is deleted.

   Also, Section 4 says that supporting renewals is not mandatory.
   Given that this functionality is usually not needed, we recommend
   that gateways should not send the INTERNAL_ADDRESS_EXPIRY attribute.
   (And since this attribute does not seem to make much sense for
   CFG_REQUESTs, clients should not send it either.)

   Note that according to Section 4, clients are required to understand
   INTERNAL_ADDRESS_EXPIRY if they receive it.  A minimum implementation
   would use the value to limit the lifetime of the IKE_SA.

   (References: Tero Kivinen's mail "Comments of
   draft-eronen-ipsec-ikev2-clarifications-02.txt", 2005-04-05.
   "Questions about internal address" thread, April 2005.)

6.8.  Address Assignment Failures

   If the responder encounters an error while attempting to assign an IP
   address to the initiator, it responds with an
   INTERNAL_ADDRESS_FAILURE notification as described in Section 3.10.1.
   However, there are some more complex error cases.

   First, if the responder does not support configuration payloads at
   all, it can simply ignore all configuration payloads.  This type of
   implementation never sends INTERNAL_ADDRESS_FAILURE notifications.
   If the initiator requires the assignment of an IP address, it will
   treat a response without CFG_REPLY as an error.

   A second case is where the responder does support configuration
   payloads, but only for particular type of addresses (IPv4 or IPv6).
   Section 4 says that "A minimal IPv4 responder implementation will
   ignore the contents of the CP payload except to determine that it
   includes an INTERNAL_IP4_ADDRESS attribute".  If, for instance, the
   initiator includes both INTERNAL_IP4_ADDRESS and INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS
   in the CFG_REQUEST, an IPv4-only responder can thus simply ignore the
   IPv6 part and process the IPv4 request as usual.

   A third case is where the initiator requests multiple addresses of a
   type that the responder supports: what should happen if some (but not
   all) of the requests fail?  It seems that an optimistic approach
   would be the best one here: if the responder is able to assign at
   least one address, it replies with those; it sends
   INTERNAL_ADDRESS_FAILURE only if no addresses can be assigned.

   (References: "ikev2 and internal_ivpn_address" thread, June 2005.)

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7.  Miscellaneous Issues

7.1.  Matching ID_IPV4_ADDR and ID_IPV6_ADDR

   When using the ID_IPV4_ADDR/ID_IPV6_ADDR identity types in IDi/IDr
   payloads, IKEv2 does not require this address to match anything in
   the TSi/TSr payloads.  For example, in a site-to-site VPN between two
   security gateways, the gateways could authenticate each other as
   ID_IPV4_ADDR( and ID_IPV4_ADDR(, and then create
   a CHILD_SA for protecting traffic between (a host
   behind the first security gateway) and (a network
   behind the second security gateway).  The authenticated identities
   (IDi/IDr) are linked to the authorized traffic selectors (TSi/TSr)
   using "Child SA Authorization Data" in the Peer Authorization
   Database (PAD).

   Furthermore, IKEv2 does not require that the addresses in
   ID_IPV4_ADDR/ID_IPV6_ADDR match the address in the IP header of the
   IKE packets.  However, other specifications may place additional
   requirements regarding this.  For example, [PKI4IPsec] requires that
   implementation must be capable of comparing the addresses in the
   ID_IPV4_ADDR/ID_IPV6_ADDR with the addresses in the IP header of the
   IKE packets, and this comparison must be enabled by default.

   (References: "Identities types IP address,FQDN/user FQDN and DN and
   its usage in preshared key authentication" thread, Jan 2005.
   "Matching ID_IPV4_ADDR and ID_IPV6_ADDR" thread, May 2006.)

7.2.  Relationship of IKEv2 to RFC 4301

   The IKEv2 specification refers to [RFC4301], but it never clearly
   defines the exact relationship.

   However, there are some requirements in the specification that make
   it clear that IKEv2 requires [RFC4301].  In other words, an
   implementation that does IPsec processing strictly according to
   [RFC2401] cannot be compliant with the IKEv2 specification.

   One such example can be found in Section 2.24: "Specifically, tunnel
   encapsulators and decapsulators for all tunnel-mode SAs created by
   IKEv2 [...]  MUST implement the tunnel encapsulation and
   decapsulation processing specified in [RFC4301] to prevent discarding
   of ECN congestion indications."

   Nevertheless, the changes required to existing [RFC2401]
   implementations are not very large, especially since supporting many
   of the new features (such as Extended Sequence Numbers) is optional.

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7.3.  Reducing the Window Size

   In IKEv2, the window size is assumed to be a (possibly configurable)
   property of a particular implementation and is not related to
   congestion control (unlike the window size in TCP, for instance).

   In particular, it is not defined what the responder should do when it
   receives a SET_WINDOW_SIZE notification containing a smaller value
   than is currently in effect.  Thus, there is currently no way to
   reduce the window size of an existing IKE_SA.  However, when rekeying
   an IKE_SA, the new IKE_SA starts with window size 1 until it is
   explicitly increased by sending a new SET_WINDOW_SIZE notification.

   (References: Tero Kivinen's mail "Comments of
   draft-eronen-ipsec-ikev2-clarifications-02.txt", 2005-04-05.)

7.4.  Minimum Size of Nonces

   Section 2.10 says that "Nonces used in IKEv2 MUST be randomly chosen,
   MUST be at least 128 bits in size, and MUST be at least half the key
   size of the negotiated prf."

   However, the initiator chooses the nonce before the outcome of the
   negotiation is known.  In this case, the nonce has to be long enough
   for all the PRFs being proposed.

7.5.  Initial Zero Octets on Port 4500

   It is not clear whether a peer sending an IKE_SA_INIT request on port
   4500 should include the initial four zero octets.  Section 2.23 talks
   about how to upgrade to tunneling over port 4500 after message 2, but
   it does not say what to do if message 1 is sent on port 4500.

       IKE MUST listen on port 4500 as well as port 500.


       The IKE initiator MUST check these payloads if present and if
       they do not match the addresses in the outer packet MUST tunnel
       all future IKE and ESP packets associated with this IKE_SA over
       UDP port 4500.

       To tunnel IKE packets over UDP port 4500, the IKE header has four
       octets of zero prepended and the result immediately follows the
       UDP header. [...]

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   The very beginning of Section 2 says "... though IKE messages may
   also be received on UDP port 4500 with a slightly different format
   (see section 2.23)."

   That "slightly different format" is only described in discussing what
   to do after changing to port 4500.  However, [RFC3948] shows clearly
   the format has the initial zeros even for initiators on port 4500.
   Furthermore, without the initial zeros, the processing engine cannot
   determine whether the packet is an IKE packet or an ESP packet.

   Thus, all packets sent on port 4500 need the four-zero prefix;
   otherwise, the receiver won't know how to handle them.

7.6.  Destination Port for NAT Traversal

   Section 2.23 says that "an IPsec endpoint that discovers a NAT
   between it and its correspondent MUST send all subsequent traffic to
   and from port 4500".

   This sentence is misleading.  The peer "outside" the NAT uses source
   port 4500 for the traffic it sends, but the destination port is, of
   course, taken from packets sent by the peer behind the NAT.  This
   port number is usually dynamically allocated by the NAT.

7.7.  SPI Values for Messages outside an IKE_SA

   The IKEv2 specification is not quite clear what SPI values should be
   used in the IKE header for the small number of notifications that are
   allowed to be sent outside an IKE_SA.  Note that such notifications
   are explicitly not Informational exchanges; Section 1.5 makes it
   clear that these are one-way messages that must not be responded to.

   There are two cases when such a one-way notification can be sent:

   In case of INVALID_IKE_SPI, the message sent is a response message,
   and Section 2.21 says that "If a response is sent, the response MUST
   be sent to the IP address and port from whence it came with the same
   IKE SPIs and the Message ID copied."

   In case of INVALID_SPI, however, there are no IKE SPI values that
   would be meaningful to the recipient of such a notification.  Also,
   the message sent is now an INFORMATIONAL request.  A strict
   interpretation of the specification would require the sender to
   invent garbage values for the SPI fields.  However, we think this was
   not the intention, and using zero values is acceptable.

   (References: "INVALID_IKE_SPI" thread, June 2005.)

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7.8.  Protocol ID/SPI Fields in Notify Payloads

   Section 3.10 says that the Protocol ID field in Notify payloads "For
   notifications that do not relate to an existing SA, this field MUST
   be sent as zero and MUST be ignored on receipt".  However, the
   specification does not clearly say which notifications are related to
   existing SAs and which are not.

   Since the main purpose of the Protocol ID field is to specify the
   type of the SPI, our interpretation is that the Protocol ID field
   should be non-zero only when the SPI field is non-empty.

   There are currently only two notifications where this is the case:

7.9.  Which message should contain INITIAL_CONTACT

   The description of the INITIAL_CONTACT notification in Section 3.10.1
   says that "This notification asserts that this IKE_SA is the only
   IKE_SA currently active between the authenticated identities".
   However, neither Section 2.4 nor 3.10.1 says in which message this
   payload should be placed.

   The general agreement is that INITIAL_CONTACT is best communicated in
   the first IKE_AUTH request, not as a separate exchange afterwards.

   (References: "Clarifying the use of INITIAL_CONTACT in IKEv2" thread,
   April 2005.  "Initial Contact messages" thread, December 2004.
   "IKEv2 and Initial Contact" thread, September 2004 and April 2005.)

7.10.  Alignment of Payloads

   Many IKEv2 payloads contain fields marked as "RESERVED", mostly
   because IKEv1 had them, and partly because they make the pictures
   easier to draw.  In particular, payloads in IKEv2 are not, in
   general, aligned to 4-octet boundaries.  (Note that payloads were not
   aligned to 4-octet boundaries in IKEv1 either.)

   (References: "IKEv2: potential 4-byte alignment problem" thread, June

7.11.  Key Length Transform Attribute

   Section 3.3.5 says that "The only algorithms defined in this document
   that accept attributes are the AES based encryption, integrity, and
   pseudo-random functions, which require a single attribute specifying
   key width."

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   This is incorrect.  The AES-based integrity and pseudo-random
   functions defined in [IKEv2] always use a 128-bit key.  In fact,
   there are currently no integrity or PRF algorithms that use the key
   length attribute (and we recommend that they should not be defined in
   the future either).

   For encryption algorithms, the situation is slightly more complex
   since there are three different types of algorithms:

   o  The key length attribute is never used with algorithms that use a
      fixed length key, such as DES and IDEA.

   o  The key length attribute is always included for the currently
      defined AES-based algorithms (Cipher Block Chaining (CBC), Counter
      (CTR) Mode, Counter with CBC-MAC (CCM), and Galois/Counter Mode
      (GCM)).  Omitting the key length attribute is not allowed; if the
      proposal does not contain it, the proposal has to be rejected.

   o  For other algorithms, the key length attribute can be included but
      is not mandatory.  These algorithms include, e.g., RC5, CAST, and
      BLOWFISH.  If the key length attribute is not included, the
      default value specified in [RFC2451] is used.

7.12.  IPsec IANA Considerations

   There are currently three different IANA registry files that contain
   important numbers for IPsec: ikev2-registry, isakmp-registry, and
   ipsec-registry.  Implementers should note that IKEv2 may use numbers
   different from those of IKEv1 for a particular algorithm.

   For instance, an encryption algorithm can have up to three different
   numbers: the IKEv2 "Transform Type 1" identifier in ikev2-registry,
   the IKEv1 phase 1 "Encryption Algorithm" identifier in ipsec-
   registry, and the IKEv1 phase 2 "IPSEC ESP Transform Identifier"
   isakmp-registry.  Although some algorithms have the same number in
   all three registries, the registries are not identical.

   Similarly, an integrity algorithm can have at least the IKEv2
   "Transform Type 3" identifier in ikev2-registry, the IKEv1 phase 2
   "IPSEC AH Transform Identifier" in isakmp-registry, and the IKEv1
   phase 2 ESP "Authentication Algorithm Security Association Attribute"
   identifier in isakmp-registry.  And there is also the IKEv1 phase 1
   "Hash Algorithm" list in ipsec-registry.

   This issue needs special care also when writing a specification for
   how a new algorithm is used with IPsec.

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7.13.  Combining ESP and AH

   The IKEv2 specification contains some misleading text about how ESP
   and AH can be combined.

   IKEv2 is based on [RFC4301], which does not include "SA bundles" that
   were part of [RFC2401].  While a single packet can go through IPsec
   processing multiple times, each of these passes uses a separate SA,
   and the passes are coordinated by the forwarding tables.  In IKEv2,
   each of these SAs has to be created using a separate CREATE_CHILD_SA
   exchange.  Thus, the text in Section 2.7 about a single proposal
   containing both ESP and AH is incorrect.

   Moreover, the combination of ESP and AH (between the same endpoints)
   had already become largely obsolete in 1998 when RFC 2406 was
   published.  Our recommendation is that IKEv2 implementations should
   not support this combination, and implementers should not assume the
   combination can be made to work in an interoperable manner.

   (References: "Rekeying SA bundles" thread, Oct 2005.)

8.  Implementation Mistakes

   Some implementers at the early IKEv2 bakeoffs didn't do everything
   correctly.  This may seem like an obvious statement, but it is
   probably useful to list a few things that were clear in the document,
   but that some implementers didn't do.  All of these things caused
   interoperability problems.

   o  Some implementations continued to send traffic on a CHILD_SA after
      it was rekeyed, even after receiving an DELETE payload.

   o  After rekeying an IKE_SA, some implementations did not reset their
      message counters to zero.  One set the counter to 2, another did
      not reset the counter at all.

   o  Some implementations could only handle a single pair of traffic
      selectors or would only process the first pair in the proposal.

   o  Some implementations responded to a delete request by sending an
      empty INFORMATIONAL response and then initiated their own
      INFORMATIONAL exchange with the pair of SAs to delete.

   o  Although this did not happen at the bakeoff, from the discussion
      there, it is clear that some people had not implemented message
      window sizes correctly.  Some implementations might have sent

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      messages that did not fit into the responder's message windows,
      and some implementations may not have torn down an SA if they did
      not ever receive a message that they know they should have.

9.  Security Considerations

   This document does not introduce any new security considerations to
   IKEv2.  If anything, clarifying complex areas of the specification
   can reduce the likelihood of implementation problems that may have
   security implications.

10.  Acknowledgments

   This document is mainly based on conversations on the IPsec WG
   mailing list.  The authors would especially like to thank Bernard
   Aboba, Jari Arkko, Vijay Devarapalli, William Dixon, Francis Dupont,
   Alfred Hoenes, Mika Joutsenvirta, Charlie Kaufman, Stephen Kent, Tero
   Kivinen, Yoav Nir, Michael Richardson, and Joel Snyder for their

   In addition, the authors would like to thank all the participants of
   the first public IKEv2 bakeoff, held in Santa Clara in February 2005,
   for their questions and proposed clarifications.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [IKEv2]       Kaufman, C., Ed., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2)
                 Protocol", RFC 4306, December 2005.

   [IKEv2ALG]    Schiller, J., "Cryptographic Algorithms for Use in the
                 Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2)", RFC 4307,
                 December 2005.

   [PKCS1v20]    Kaliski, B. and J. Staddon, "PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography
                 Specifications Version 2.0", RFC 2437, October 1998.

   [PKCS1v21]    Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
                 Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
                 Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003.

   [RFC2401]     Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for
                 the Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998.

   [RFC4301]     Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
                 Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

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RFC 4718                  IKEv2 Clarifications              October 2006

11.2.  Informative References

   [Aura05]      Aura, T., Roe, M., and A. Mohammed, "Experiences with
                 Host-to-Host IPsec", 13th International Workshop on
                 Security Protocols, Cambridge, UK, April 2005.

   [EAP]         Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J., and
                 H. Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol
                 (EAP)", RFC 3748, June 2004.

   [HashUse]     Hoffman, P., "Use of Hash Algorithms in IKE and IPsec",
                 Work in Progress, July 2006.

   [IPCPSubnet]  Cisco Systems, Inc., "IPCP Subnet Mask Support
                 Enhancements",  http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/
                 121dc3/ipcp_msk.htm, January 2003.

   [IPv6Addr]    Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
                 Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [MIPv6]       Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility
                 Support in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [MLDv2]       Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery
                 Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.

   [NAI]         Aboba, B., Beadles, M., Arkko, J., and P. Eronen, "The
                 Network Access Identifier", RFC 4282, December 2005.

   [PKI4IPsec]   Korver, B., "Internet PKI Profile of IKEv1/ISAKMP,
                 IKEv2, and PKIX", Work in Progress, April 2006.

   [RADEAP]      Aboba, B. and P. Calhoun, "RADIUS (Remote
                 Authentication Dial In User Service) Support For
                 Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)", RFC 3579,
                 September 2003.

   [RADIUS]      Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
                 "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)",
                 RFC 2865, June 2000.

   [RADIUS6]     Aboba, B., Zorn, G., and D. Mitton, "RADIUS and IPv6",
                 RFC 3162, August 2001.

   [RFC2119]     Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                 Requirement  Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

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RFC 4718                  IKEv2 Clarifications              October 2006

   [RFC2451]     Pereira, R. and R. Adams, "The ESP CBC-Mode Cipher
                 Algorithms", RFC 2451, November 1998.

   [RFC2822]     Resnick, P., "Internet Message Format", RFC 2822,
                 April 2001.

   [RFC3664]     Hoffman, P., "The AES-XCBC-PRF-128 Algorithm for the
                 Internet Key Exchange Protocol (IKE)", RFC 3664,
                 January 2004.

   [RFC3948]     Huttunen, A., Swander, B., Volpe, V., DiBurro, L., and
                 M. Stenberg, "UDP Encapsulation of IPsec ESP Packets",
                 RFC 3948, January 2005.

   [RFC4434]     Hoffman, P., "The AES-XCBC-PRF-128 Algorithm for the
                 Internet Key Exchange Protocol (IKE)", RFC 4434,
                 February 2006.

   [RFC822]      Crocker, D., "Standard for the format of ARPA Internet
                 text messages", RFC 822, August 1982.

   [ReAuth]      Nir, Y., "Repeated Authentication in Internet Key
                 Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol", RFC 4478, April 2006.

   [SCVP]        Freeman, T., Housley, R., Malpani, A., Cooper, D., and
                 T. Polk, "Simple Certificate Validation Protocol
                 (SCVP)", Work in Progress, June 2006.

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RFC 4718                  IKEv2 Clarifications              October 2006

Appendix A.  Exchanges and Payloads

   This appendix contains a short summary of the IKEv2 exchanges, and
   what payloads can appear in which message.  This appendix is purely
   informative; if it disagrees with the body of this document or the
   IKEv2 specification, the other text is considered correct.

   Vendor-ID (V) payloads may be included in any place in any message.
   This sequence shows what are, in our opinion, the most logical places
   for them.

   The specification does not say which messages can contain
   N(SET_WINDOW_SIZE).  It can possibly be included in any message, but
   it is not yet shown below.

A.1.  IKE_SA_INIT Exchange

   request             --> [N(COOKIE)],
                           SA, KE, Ni,

   normal response     <-- SA, KE, Nr,
   (no cookie)             [N(NAT_DETECTION_SOURCE_IP),
                           [[N(HTTP_CERT_LOOKUP_SUPPORTED)], CERTREQ+],

A.2.  IKE_AUTH Exchange without EAP

   request             --> IDi, [CERT+],
                           [[N(HTTP_CERT_LOOKUP_SUPPORTED)], CERTREQ+],
                           SA, TSi, TSr,

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   response            <-- IDr, [CERT+],
                           SA, TSi, TSr,

A.3.  IKE_AUTH Exchange with EAP

   first request       --> IDi,
                           [[N(HTTP_CERT_LOOKUP_SUPPORTED)], CERTREQ+],
                           SA, TSi, TSr,

   first response      <-- IDr, [CERT+], AUTH,

                     / --> EAP
   repeat 1..N times |
                     \ <-- EAP

   last request        --> AUTH

   last response       <-- AUTH,
                           SA, TSi, TSr,

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A.4.  CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange for Creating/Rekeying CHILD_SAs

   request             --> [N(REKEY_SA)],
                           SA, Ni, [KEi], TSi, TSr

   response            <-- [N(IPCOMP_SUPPORTED)],
                           SA, Nr, [KEr], TSi, TSr,

A.5.  CREATE_CHILD_SA Exchange for Rekeying the IKE_SA

   request             --> SA, Ni, [KEi]

   response            <-- SA, Nr, [KEr]


   request             --> [N+],

   response            <-- [N+],

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Authors' Addresses

   Pasi Eronen
   Nokia Research Center
   P.O. Box 407
   FIN-00045 Nokia Group

   EMail: pasi.eronen@nokia.com

   Paul Hoffman
   VPN Consortium
   127 Segre Place
   Santa Cruz, CA 95060

   EMail: paul.hoffman@vpnc.org

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RFC 4718                  IKEv2 Clarifications              October 2006

Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

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   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

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Intellectual Property

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