Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Jones
Request for Comments: 9278
Category: Standards Track Microsoft
ISSN: 2070-1721 August 2022
JWK Thumbprint URI
This specification registers a kind of URI that represents a JSON Web
Key (JWK) Thumbprint value. JWK Thumbprints are defined in RFC 7638
This enables JWK Thumbprints to be used, for instance, as key
identifiers in contexts requiring URIs.
Status of This Memo
This is an Internet Standards Track document.
This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
received public review and has been approved for publication by the
Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841
Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9278
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Table of Contents 1.
Requirements Notation and Conventions 3.
JWK Thumbprint URI 4.
Hash Algorithms Identifier 5.
Mandatory to Implement Hash Algorithm 6.
Example JWK Thumbprint URI 7.
Security Considerations 7.1.
Multiple Public Keys per Private Key 8.
IANA Considerations 8.1.
OAuth URI Registration 8.1.1.
Registry Contents 9.
Normative References 9.2.
A JSON Web Key (JWK) Thumbprint [RFC7638
] is a URL-safe
representation of a hash value over a JWK [RFC7517
specification defines a URI prefix indicating that the portion of the
URI following the prefix is a JWK Thumbprint. This enables JWK
Thumbprints to be communicated in contexts requiring URIs, including
in specific JSON Web Token (JWT) [RFC7519
JWK Thumbprint URIs are being used in the [SIOPv2] specification as
one kind of subject identifier in a context requiring that the
identifier be a URI. In this case, the subject identifier is derived
from a public key represented as a JWK. Expressing the identifier as
a JWK Thumbprint URI enables this kind of identifier to be
differentiated from other kinds of identifiers that are also URIs,
such as Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) [DID-Core].
2. Requirements Notation and Conventions
The key words "MUST
", "MUST NOT
", "SHALL NOT
", "SHOULD NOT
", "NOT RECOMMENDED
" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
BCP 14 [RFC2119
] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here.
3. JWK Thumbprint URI
The following URI prefix is defined to indicate that the portion of
the URI following the prefix is a JWK Thumbprint:
To make the hash algorithm being used explicit in a URI, the prefix
is followed by a hash algorithm identifier and a JWK Thumbprint
value, each separated by a colon character to form a URI representing
a JWK Thumbprint.
4. Hash Algorithms Identifier
Hash algorithm identifiers used in JWK Thumbprint URIs MUST
from the "Hash Name String" column in the IANA "Named Information
Hash Algorithm Registry" [IANA.Hash.Algorithms]. JWK Thumbprint URIs
with hash algorithm identifiers not found in this registry are not
considered valid and applications will need to detect and handle this
error, should it occur.
5. Mandatory to Implement Hash Algorithm
To promote interoperability among implementations, the SHA-256 hash
algorithm is mandatory to implement.
6. Example JWK Thumbprint URI
Section 3.1 of [RFC7638
] contains the following example JWK
A complete JWK Thumbprint URI using the above JWK Thumbprint and
SHA-256 hash algorithm is as follows:
7. Security Considerations
The security considerations of [RFC7638
] also apply when using this
7.1. Multiple Public Keys per Private Key
There are cryptographic algorithms for which multiple public keys
correspond to the same private key. This is described in the
security considerations of [RFC7748
] as follows:
| Designers using these curves should be aware that for each public
| key, there are several publicly computable public keys that are
| equivalent to it, i.e., they produce the same shared secrets.
| Thus using a public key as an identifier and knowledge of a shared
| secret as proof of ownership (without including the public keys in
| the key derivation) might lead to subtle vulnerabilities.
This consideration for public keys as identifiers equally applies to
JWK Thumbprint URIs used as identifiers. A recommended way to ensure
that the JWK Thumbprint URI corresponds to the actual public key used
is to sign a message containing the correct public key with the
private key. This signed message could also contain the JWK
Thumbprint URI (although, by definition, it could also be computed
directly from the public key).
8. IANA Considerations
8.1. OAuth URI Registration
This specification registers the following value in the IANA "OAuth
URI" registry [IANA.OAuth.Parameters] established by [RFC6755
8.1.1. Registry Contents
Common Name: JWK Thumbprint URI
Change controller: IESG
Specification Document: RFC 9278
9.1. Normative References
IANA, "OAuth Parameters",
] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119
, March 1997,
] Jones, M. and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Key (JWK)
Thumbprint", RFC 7638
, DOI 10.17487/RFC7638
] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119
Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174
, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174
9.2. Informative References
[DID-Core] Sporny, M., Guy, A., Sabadello, M., and D. Reed,
"Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) v1.0", August 2021,
IANA, "Named Information Hash Algorithm Registry",
] Campbell, B. and H. Tschofenig, "An IETF URN Sub-Namespace
for OAuth", RFC 6755
, DOI 10.17487/RFC6755
, October 2012,
] Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)", RFC 7517
, May 2015,
] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token
(JWT)", RFC 7519
, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519
, May 2015,
] Langley, A., Hamburg, M., and S. Turner, "Elliptic Curves
for Security", RFC 7748
, DOI 10.17487/RFC7748
[SIOPv2] Yasuda, K., Jones, M., and T. Lodderstedt, "Self-Issued
OpenID Provider v2", June 2022, <https://openid.net/specs/
Use cases for this specification were developed in the OpenID Connect
Working Group of the OpenID Foundation. Specifically, it is being
used as a key identifier in the [SIOPv2] specification.
The following individuals also contributed to the creation of this
specification: John Bradley, Scott Bradner, Brian Campbell, Roman
Danyliw, Vladimir Dzhuvinov, Lars Eggert, Warren Kumari, Adam Lemmon,
Neil Madden, James Manger, Francesca Palombini, Aaron Parecki,
Gonzalo Salgueiro, Rifaat Shekh-Yusef, Robert Sparks, David Waite,
Robert Wilton, and Paul Wouters.
Michael B. Jones